Basic German: Grammar Rules

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Berlitz basic grammar rules.

ss and ß

ss is between of vowels if preceding vowel is short.

ß is in front of long consonants.

In capitals, only SS

Capitals

words at start of a sentence; all nouns; polite forms of address

Masculine Article

Most nouns ending in -er

Der

Feminine Article

Most nouns ending in -e:
All nouns ending in -ei
All nouns ending in -ion
All nouns ending in -ung
All nouns (rare exceptions) with the endings -schaft, -enz, -ie, -tät, -ur and -itis

Die

Neuter

All nouns ending in -chen
All nouns (rare exceptions) with the endings -um, -ment, -lein
All verbal and adjectival nouns not describing a specific person

Das

Verb Stems: End in -d or -t

du becomes -est
er/sie/es becomes -et

Verb Stems: s, ss, ß, z

-st ending contracts to -t

Present Tense Meanings:

Luisa arbeitet gut.

1. Luisa works well.
2. Luisa does work well.
3. Luisa is working well

Present Tense: Planned Future

Ich mache das morgen. (I'll do that tomorrow)
Du arbeitest heute Nachmittag, nicht? (You're working this afternoon, no?)

Akkusative = den, das, die/einen,eins,eine/keinen, keins, keine

Mit: fragen, suchen, finden, kosten, haben, brauchen, nehmen, möchten, trinken, bestellen

Ohne: sein, heißen

....when using an object in a sentence with a transitive verb. If you are using a pronoun, it typically comes before the verb and the subject follows the verb.

Den finde ich langweilig.

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