____neurotransmitters have a long-lasting effect due to the use of a second system.
During thyroid surgery, your patient's parathyroid glands were accidentally removed. You remembered from physiology lecture that these glands are the source of parathyroid hormones> Given that this patient can no longer produce parathyroid hormone,which condition would the patient be in danger of developing if action is not taken?
Degrades serotonin and Dopamine
Which condition would increase the excitability of the nervous system?
Skeletal muscle contraction occurs in a series of steps. Put the following events in the correct order for muscle contraction to occur.
1. Acetylcholinebinds to the sarcolemma. 2. Ca++ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. Ca++ binds to troponin. 4. ATP binds to break the crossbridge. 5. Na+ flows into the muscle cell depolarizing the cell and the action potential begins. 6. The active site is revealed. 7. Myosin head binds to the active site. 8. Power stroke occurs.
During endochondral ossification, the secondary ossification center begins within the:
Which of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter secreted by the nerve terminals in the spinal cord?
Which of the following is a naturally occuring opioid-like substance that functions as a natural analgesic to block pain?
The nervous system will be greatly depressed
A person has uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and develops metabolic acidosis. What affect would you expect acidosis to have on the person's nervous system?
The hip joint is high power and low speed.
You are involved in an experiment in a kinematics lab measuring the mechanical advantage of the hip joint. Based on your results, the average mechanical advantage of a healthy hip is 2.56. What can you infer from this result?
Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone
Which of the following will NOT cause hypocalcemia?
Ectopic ossification that occurs in soft organs forms a:
_____is a degenerative joint disease that apparently results from a combination of aging, irritation of the joints, and normal wear and tear.
A 2.3mm diameter neuron that is myelinated
Which axon would transmit an action potential most rapidly?
To Na+ is greatly increased and it flows into the cell
During the depolarization phase of an action potential in a neuron, the permeability of the membrane:
Lower the metabolic rate to a resting level
Oxygen debt is the amount of extra oxygen needed after an exercise to do all of the following except
The neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract is_____.
The enzyme responsible for forming the second messenger cAMP is______.
An action potential is possible only in response to a very strong stimulus.
During a relative refractory period:
Hematoma formation, bone remodeling
The initial phase of fracture healing is______and the final phase is characterized by______.
Has a stronger effect than testosterone; causing adolescent girls to grow faster than boys.
At the knee joint, the effort provided by the quadriceps group attaching to the patella and ligament lies between the knee joint(fulcrum) and the resistance exerted by the weight of the foot. This describes which type of lever.
Arterial pressure and respiration are mainly controlled at the lower brain level
Which of the following is correct?
Most of the joints in the body are:
Hyperpolarization is due to the efflux(outward movement) of which ion?
The tautness of the tendons that cross the joint to join muscle to bone
The most important stablizing factor for joints is
ATP is not being formed
Rigor mortis occurs in a dead animal because
Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis
A chronic, systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that is evidenced by fatigue, joint tenderness, stiffness, flare-ups, and remissions:
The attachment of ATP to myosin
In skeletal muscle relazation, the detachment of the myosin cross-bridges is directly triggered by
When current leaps across an insulating myelin sheath from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier, the type of impulse conduction is:
Which ion binds to troponin thereby stimulating a conformational change in the position of the troponin/tropomyosin complex, allowing the myosin heads to interact with the thin filament?
Hold the reserve supply of oxygen in the muscle
The function of myoglobin is to_____.
The main reason osteoporosis is most common in postmenopausal women is their lack of:
In a relaxed muscle fiber, what regulatory protein is responsible for physically convering the active sites on G-actin?
Voltage-gated calcium channels open and calcium ions enters the axonal ending.
All of the following events occur when a nerve signal reaches a pre-synaptic bulb(end of the axon) at the neuromuscular junction. the one that occurs first is:
Synovial joints are lubricated through the process of:
Muscle spasms leading to spastic Paralysis
Many potent insecticides contain toxins, called organophosphates which inhibits the action of acetylcholinesterase at the NMJ. James is using an insecticide containing organophosphates and is very careless. He does not use gloves or a dusk mask and absorbs some of the chemical through his skin. He inhales a large amount as well. What symptoms would you expect to observe in James as a result of the organophosphate poisoning?
The following influence(s) the stability of synovial joints:
A. Muscle Tone
B. # of Ligaments
C. Position of Ligaments
D. Anatomy of Articular surfaces
E. All of the Above
Identify which of the following is a descending tract responsible for reflexive head-turning response to visual and auditory stimulus.
Which of the following is an ascending tract responsible for feedback from muscles(proprioception)?
The epephyseal plate
The spurt of growth in puberty results from cell proliferation and hypertrophy in
The liver and the kidneys
The synthesis of calcitrol from cholesterol begins in the skin and is completed by
______are painful skin eruptions along the path of a nerve caused by the chicken pox virus which remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia.
As you watch the sonogram of a developing child, you note a dense area developing within the cartilaginous bones of the upper and lower limbs. This is the process of
Epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine are classified as:
To bind calcium ions
The role of calmodulin in smooth muscle is
Area of skin supplied by a spinal nerve:
When there is not enough oxygen to synthesize ATP by aerobic respiration, a muscle fiber can produce ATP by borrowing phosphate groups from creatine phosphate. Which enzyme catalyzes this reaction?
Experiences less fatigue during exercises than someone with a low VO2 max
A person with a high VO2 max
A general term for nerve pain, often caused by pressure on spinal nerves from herniated interbertebral discs or other causes: