Earth Final Exam

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final exam

what does not contribute to acid decomposition

ozone

what frequently exceeds EPA standards?

lead

what contributes to photochemical smog

Nox

Scrubbers

are installed in smoke stacks to reduce acid decomposition

Radon, asbestos, formaldehyde, chloroform, and mold spores are all ________.

indoor air pollutants

Furniture, foam insulation, pressed/laminated wood and carpets are all potential sources of ________.

formaldehyde

You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.

avoid using fertilizers in the ponds watershed

In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of ________.

removing large debris and allowing suspended solids to settle

Much of the "biosolid" material that is the end product of a water treatment plant is ________.`

used as fertilizer in the united states

The use of chlorine or UV radiation in wastewater treatment plants serves to ________.

kill pathogenic organisms

The "blue-baby" syndrome that suffocates infants is a consequence of excess ________ in the water supply.

nitrates

The majority of the oil polluting our oceans is from large spills.

false

Into the mid-20th century, it was common for U.S. coastal cities to dump trash into the ocean.

true

Emission trading programs have reduced sulfur dioxide levels in the U.S..

true

Current waste practices in the United States include the greatest proportion of trash being landfilled, with lesser amounts being incinerated, recycled, and composted.

true

People in developing nations presently generate more waste per capita than people in developed nations.

false

Since the late 1980s, the number of landfills in the United States has doubled.

true

To safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are ________.

lined with plastic and clay

The best solution to the solid waste problem is to ________.

reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream

Which of the following represents a strategy of reuse?

bring your own coffee cup to cafes and work

Which of the following cannot be composted?

plastic

The average resident of the United States generates more than ________ pound(s) of trash per day.

4

Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.

95

In Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, waste management is ________.

A) efficiently composting, recycling, and reusing two-thirds of the waste stream

Which of the following represent criteria for classifying hazardous waste?

corrosive ignitable and toxic

________ represent(s) the largest source of unregulated hazardous waste.

households

Which of the following are sources of heavy metals in the environment?

paint, water pipes, batteries, e-wastes

________ are best defined as substances that cause birth defects.

teratogens

Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because ________.

there is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease

The book Our Stolen Future was important because it ________.

focused on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on humans

Bisphenol-A is ________.

an estrogen mimic that is used in plastic manufacturing

The goal of the Stockholm Convention is to ________.

end the use and release of POPs shown to be most dangerous

The Yaqui Valley, Mexico, study showed that ________.

developmental delays occurred in children exposed to pesticides

Synergistic effects of toxicants ________.

often have effects that are multiplicative

Radon, cigarette smoke, asbestos and lead all have in common that they are all ________.

radon pollutants

acute exposure

exposure to a toxicant occurring in high amounts for short periods of time

allergen

a toxicant that overactivates the immune system causing an immune response when one is not necessary

asbestos

any several types of mineral that form long, thin microscopic fibers- a structure that allows asbestos to insulate buldings for heat muffle sound and resist fire when inhaled and lodged in lung tissue asbestos scars the tissue and may eventually lead to lung cancer

asbestosis

a disorder resulting from lung tissue scarred by acid following prolonged inhalation of asbestos

bioaccumulation

the buildup of toxicants in the tissues of an animal

biological hazard

human health hazards that result from ecological interactions among organisms these parasitism by viruses bacteria or other pathogens

biomagnification

the magnification of the concentration of toxicants in an organism caused by consumption of other organisms in which toxicants have bioaccumulated

bisphenol-A

a chemical compound used in a great variety of plastic products shown to be an estrogen mimic this compound leaches into water and food and recent evidence ties it to birth defects in lab mice

breakdown products

compounds that result from the degradation of toxicants

carcinogen

a chemical or type of radiation that causes cancer

chemical hazard

chemicals that pose human health hazards these toxins produced naturally as well as many of the disinfectants pesticides and other synthetic chemicals that our society produces

chronic exposure

exposure for long periods of time toa toxicant occuring in low amounts

cultural hazard

human health hazards that result from the place we live our socioeconomic status our occupation or our behavioral choices these include choosing to smoke cigarettes or living or working with people who do

dose

the amount of toxicant a test animal receives in a dose response test

dose response curve

a curve that plots the response of test animals to different doses of toxicant the response is generally quantified by measuring the proportion of animals exhibiting negative effects

ED50

the amount of a toxicant it takes to affect 50% of a population of test animals

endocrine disruptor

a toxicant that interferes with the endocrine system

environmental health

environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life and the health of ecological systems essential to environmental quality and long term human well being

environmental toxicology

the study of toxicants taht come from or are discharged into the environmental including the study of health effects on human beings other animals and ecosystems

epidemiological study

a study that involves large scale comparisons among groups of people usually contrasting a group known to have been exposed to some toxicant and a group that has not

unfectious disease

a disease in which a pathogen attacks a host

LD50

the amount of a toxicant it takes to kill 50% of a population of test animals

lead poisoning

poisoning by ingestion or inhalation of the heavy metal lead causing an array of maladies uncluding damage to the brain liver kidney and stomach learning problems behavior abnormalities anemia hearing loss and even death

mutagen

a toxicant that causes mutations in the DNA of organisms

neurotoxin

a toxicant that assults the nervous system neurotoxins include heavy metals pesticides and some chemical weapons developed for use in war

peroxacyl nitrate

a chemical created by the reaction of no2 with hydrocarbons which can induce further reactions that damage living tissue in animals and plants

pesticide drift

airborne transport of pesticides

phthalates

hormone disrupting chemicals used to soften plastics and enhance fragrances in many childrens toys cosmetics perfumes and other consumer products

physical hazard

physical processes that occur naturally in our environment and pose human health hazards. these include discrete events such as earthquakes volcanic eruptions etc

PBDEs

synthetic compunds that provide fire retardant properties and are used in a diverse array of consumer products including computers tvs plastics and furniture

probability

a quantitative description of the liklihood of a certain outcome

radon

a highly toxic radioactive colorless gas that seeps up from the ground in areas with certain types of bedrock and can build up inside basements and homes with poor air circulation

reach

program of the european union that shifts the burden of proof for testing chemical safety from national governments to industry

reactive

chemically unstable and readily able to react with other compounds often explosively or producing noxious fumes.

response

the type or magnitude of negative effects an animal exhibits in response to a dose of toxicant in a dose response test

risk

the mathematical probability that some harmful outcome will result from a given action event or substance

risk assessment

the quantitative measurement of risk together with the comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances

risk management

the process of considering information from scientific risk assessment in light of economical social and political needs and values in order to make decisions and design to minimize ris

Stockholm Convention on Persistent organic pollutants

a 2001 treaty that seeks to regulate 12 toxic chemicals that persist in the environmental bioaccumulation in food chains and can travel long distances

synergistic effect

an interactive effect that is more than or different from the simple sum of their constituent effects

teratogen

a toxicant that causes harm to the unborn resulting in birth defects

threshold dose

the amount of a toxicant at which it begins to affect a human population of test animals

toxic

poisonous able to harm health of people or other organisms when a substance is inhaled ingested or touched

toxicant

a substance that acts as a poison to humans or wildlife

toxicity

the degree of harm a chemical substance can inflict

toxicology

the scientific field that examines the effects of poisonous chemicals and other agents on humans and other organisms

toxin

a toxic chemical stored or manufactured in the tissues of living organisms

vector

an organism that transfers a pathogen to its host

air pollutants

gases and particulate material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organism

tropospheric ozone

ozone that occurs in the troposphere where it is a secondary pollutant created by the interaction of sunlight, heat, nitrogen, oxides, and volatile carbon containing chemicals a major component of smog it can injure living tissues and cause respiratory problems

ozone layer

a portion of the stratosphere roughlt 17-30km above sea level which contains most of the ozone in the atmosphere

particulate manner

solid or liquid particles small enough to be suspended in the atmosphere and able to damage respiratory tissues when inhaled includes primary pollutants such as dust and soot as well as secondary pollutants such as sulfates and nitrates

weather

specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods typically hours and days and within relatively small geographic

climate

describes the pattern o atmospheric conditions found across large geographic regions over long periods of time

temperature inversion

the band of air in which temperature arises with altitude is called an inversion layer

hurricanes

form when winds rush into areas of low pressure where warm moisture laden air over tropical oceans is rising

tornadoes

form when a mass of warm air meets a mass of cold air and warm air rises quickly setting a powerful convective current in motion

air pollutants

gases and particular material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organisms

air pollution

the release of air pollutants

primary pollutants

such as soot and carbon monoxide are pollutants emitted into the troposphere in a form that can be directly harmful or that can react to form harmful substances

secondary pollutants

harmful substances produced when primary pollutants interact or react with constituents of the atmosphere

clean air act

first enacted in 1963 and amended multiple times since particularly in 1970 and 1990 this body of legislation funds research into pollution control sets standards for air quality impses limits on emissions from new stationary

scrubbers

chemically convert or physically remove airborne pollutants before they are emitted from smokestacks have allowed factories power plants and refineries to decrease emissions of several pollutants

toxic air pollutants

chemicals known to cause serious health problems or environmental problems

industrial smog

or gray air smog when coal or oil is burned some portion is completely combusted forming co2

photochemical smog

or brown air smog is formed by light driven chemical reactions of primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds that produce a mix of over 100 different chemicals

CFCs

being mass produced by industry at a rate of of a million metric tons per year

acidic depositon

the deposition of acidic or acid forming pollutants from the atmosphere onto earths surface

atmospheric deposition

which refers more broadly to wet or dry deposition on land of a wide variety of pollutants including mercury nitrates organochlorines and others

global climate change

describes trends and variations in earths climate involving aspects such as temperature precipitation and storm frequency and intensity

global warming

an increase in earths average surface temperature

greenhouse effect

re emitted energy is lost to space but some travels back downward warming the atmosphere and the planets surface

radiative forcing

the change in energy that a given figure factor

milankovitch cycles

alter the way solar radiation is distributed over earths surface

thermohaline circulation

is a worldwide current system in which warmer fresher water moves along the surface in some areas.

ENSO

a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure sea surface temperature and ocean circulation in the tropical pacific ocean.

el nino

conditions are triggered when air pressure increases in the western pacific and decreases in the eastern pacific

la nina

events in the opposite of el nino events cod surface waters extend far westward in the equatorial pacific

proxy indicators

are types of indirect evidence that serve as proxies or substitutes for direct measurement and that shed light on past climate

climate models

are programs that combine what is known about atmospheric circulation ocean circulation atmosphere ocean interactions and feedback mechanisms to simulate cliate progress.

IPCC

the international panel consisting of many hundreds of scientists and government officials was established in 1988 by the UNEP and the world materological organization

Fourth assesment report

which represents the consensus of scientific climate research from around the world

mitigation

the aim is to mitigate or alleviate the problem

adaption

the goal is to adapt to change by finding ways to cushion oneself from its blows

kyoto protocol

mandates signatory nations by period 2008-2012 to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels below of 1990

waste

refers to any unwanted material or substance that results from a human activity or process

municipal solid waste

is non liquid waste that comes from homes institutions and small business

industrial solid waste

comes from production of consumer goods mining agriculture and petroleum extraction and refining

hazardous waste

refers to solid or liqud waste that is toxic chemically reactive flammable or corrosive

waste steam

the flow of waste as it moves from its sources toward disposal destinations

sanitary landfills

waste is buried in the ground or piled up in large carefully engineered mounds designed to prevent waste from contaminating the environment and threatening public health

leachate

liquid that results when substances from the trash dissolve in water as rainwater percolates downward

inceneration

or combustion is a controlled process in which mixed garbage is burned at very high temperatures

WTE

facilities that use heat produced by waste combustion to boil water creating steam that drives electricity generation or that fuels heating systems

source reduction

reducing the amount of material entering the waste stream avoids costs of disposal and recycling helps conserve resources minimizes pollution and can often save consumers and businesses money

composting

the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition

recycling

consists of collecting materials that can be broken down and reprocessed to manufacture new items

materials recovery facilities

where workers and machines sort items using magnetic pulleys optical sensors waste currents and air classifiers that separate items by weight and size

industrial ecology

seeks to redesign industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and to maximize both physical and economic efficiency

life cycle analysis

from its origins in raw materials through its manufacturing to its use and finally its disposal

hazardous waste

ignitable corrosive reactive and toxic

electronic waste

computers vcrs cell phones and other electronic devices represent major new sources of potential heavy metal contamination

surface impoundments

liquid hazardous waste or waste in dissolved form

superfund

under epa auspices experts identify sites polluted with hazardous chemicals take into action to protect ground water near these sites

deep well injection

a well is drilled deep beneath the water table into pourous rock and wastes are injected into it

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