Question about cave painting
Most famous - Lascaux(southern France) and Altamira(northern Spain)
Main subject - Animals (Never Drawn in a landscape)
Cave paintings were created for some Magical or even Religious purpose, not simply decorate the walls.
What is Stone age
used to kill animals for food.
Paleolithic(old stone age) 30,000B.C.-8000B.C.
Mesolithic(Middle stone age)8000B.C.-7000B.C
Neolithic(New stone age)7000B.C.-3500B.C
Small sculptures of female figures created for magical or religious purpose(to enhance fertility)
Example - Venus of willendorf (made of stone, 4 1/2 inches)
Some sculpture was made of bone.
Question about new Stone Age cities and the duration of Stone Age cultures
Two famous cities
1. Jericho : the oldest city in the Jordan River Valley
2. Catal Huyuk : in Turkey
Question about Stonehenge
the most famous and extraordinary stone structure
The great Circle
No mortar used to attach the upright stones.
No records(no idea how to construct)
Constructed for religious purposes related to the changing of the seasons and probably the success of harvesting crops
Primitive art is divided by three part.
1. North American Indians
2. Oceania (islands of the South Pacific)
3. Sub-Saharan Africa
Define of primitive
Having no written language
the history is transmitted orally.
Ex) Bible, Homer's epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey
Primitive societies and three stage
The best art is equal as a demonstration of the artist's creative ability.
1. traders or sailors would bring back objects as curiosities.
2. objects from three areas were placed in museums interested in ethnography
3. collected was basically for scientific reasons
Primitive art in art in Africa
the artist influenced by primitive art from Africa
1. Gauguin(French 1848-1903)
2. Picasso(Spanish 1881-1973)
3. Cubists, Kirchner(German 1880-1938)
4. German expressionist
Question about primitive art
1. Inspired Modern Artists to do things that were revolutionary in art and break with traditional methods that would make them outsiders in society.
2. The primitive artist was very much an integral part of his society.
3. Most primitive art was done for religious purposes, the glorification of the ruler as with the art of the Ancient and Medieval world.
4. Like the Ancient Romans, many primitive societies practice a form of Ancestor worship.
5. Now primitive art is displayed in the great art museums of the world.
7. Masks created for religious ceremonies are major art form in Primitive societies.
Question dealing with concerns of the art of ancient Egypt
the concerns is foreign invasion
As a result of this comparative freedom from foreign invasion, Egypt would maintain a relatively similar stylization(Rules) of art for 3000 years, with exception of the period when the pharaoh Ikhnaton or Akhnaton ruled egypt.
What are Hieroglyphics
the written language of the Ancient Egyptians
What were the Pyramids made of
Pyramids made of stone, were basically tombs for the mummified bodies of Pharaohs and their family.
The Pyramids were coated with white limestone, which caused a tremendous reflection, when the sun hit them, which would have certainly reinforced the idea that a God-King was buried inside.
Question about Egyptian columns
The Greeks influenced by the Egyptians columns
Their columns are DORIC, IONIAN, CORINTHIAN.
Where are the three great pyramids located
Three great pyramids built at Giza on the left bank of the Nile in the North, the Delta area where the sun sets.
Question about Egyptian geography
The Nile is the longest river over 4000 miles long.
It start in heavily rainy area in east central Africa, below the Equator and flows north towards the Mediterranean Sea and Egypt which has rarely any rain.
In East central Africa : very rainy and rich soil
There are mountains and deserts on both sides of the Nile.
This natural protection would make it possible for that land to develop a civilization free from constant invasion.
As the river approaches the Mediterranean, it forms a large triangle of streams, Delta.
The Delta region, which is in Northern Egypt was called Lower Egypt.
The area on both sides of the banks of the Nile, which is in Southern Egypt was called Upper Egypt.
Question about Egyptian history
A Greek historian wrote the history of Egypt around 300B.C. dividing the rulers of Ancient Egypt, into 31 Dynasties.
The history id divided by Old Kingdom, the first intermediary period, the middle kingdom, the second intermediary period and the new kingdom.
Question about King(Pharaoh) Zoser
lived in the beginning of the Old kingdom
the Step Pyramid for King Zoser.
with its attached Funerary District
Designed by the first recorded artist, IMHOTEP
Step pyramid is comprised of six Mastabas, burial monuments giving appearance of steps.
Question about the Sphinx
the body of a lion, with a human head, most likely the pharaoh Khafre.
From on site rock is connected by a causeway to Khafre's pyramid and was probably built as a form of protection.
Question about the Egyptian Gods
the gods were portrayed as animals, or the animal section on the upper part of the body and the lower part of the body is human.
HATHOR : the upper part a cow
ANUBIS : the upper part a jackal
OSIRIS : the tale of the god and bears, deal with resurrection and killed by his brother SETH.
ISIS : the wife of OSIRIS
HORUS : OSIRIS son and as a hawk
Question about the Egyptian concept of death
Pharaoh would unite with OSIRIS after death, which is the reason that HORUS as a hawk.
Religion was at the center of ancient egyptian life.
Life after Death.
Soul needed to get back into the body
Mummification to preserve the body
Question about the stylization of the figure in ancient Egyptian painting and sculpture
the depiction of the figure in both painting and bas relief would last for 3000 years
1. Head : shown in profile
2. Eyes : sown frontally
3. Upper part of the torso : shown frontally.
4. Lower part from the stomach to the feet : shown sideways
5. Both feet : shown with one toe(the big toe)
6. shown standing on a ground line
The egyptian did not understand accurate the human body or its part, while the ancient Greeks understand well.
Egyptian Sculpture has a cubical quality, but Mesopotamian sculpture has a conical quality
Question about Akhenaton
AKHENATON is rule Egypt from about 1370-1353BC
Abandoned the polytheistic(many gods) religion and start the first monotheistic(one god) religion.
The god was ATON.
The art produced during his reign broke with some of the aspects of stylization that dominated egyptian art from its beginnings.
Depictions of the pharaoh and his family are more relaxed and naturalistic.
Question about Tutankhamen
Ruled Egypt form 1361-1352BC and was either Akhnaton's son or son-in-law or both.
the worship of one god has ended, and polytheism has returned.
His tomb is famous due to be found with its contents intact and nothing robbed.
Question about Middle
The Middle kingdom(2130-1790B.C)
1. the capital is moved to THEBES
2. A prince unifies by force Egypt.The pharaohs rule is not by Divine Right, but by force of arms.
3. The sense of anxiety can be seen in the portrait bust portrayals of the pharaohs, such as SESOSTRIS 3
4. The temples will take hundreds of years to complete but the Greek temple took between 10-15 years to complete.
Question about the New Kingdom
The New Kingdom(1570-1000B.C)
1. Egypt becomes an Empire
2. knew how to use the horse and wheeled chariot
3. First female pharaoh, HATSHEPSUT had beautiful tomb in the valley of the kings before the time of Moses.
4. The last ruler of an independent egypt would be his ancestor, CLEOPATRA.
5. After her death, Egypt became a province of the roman empire.
Who are the founding fathers of Mesopotamian Civilization
Sumerians who dominated Mesopotamia
What is the name of Mesopotamian writing
Forms were incised onto a tablet of clay
The Babylonian King Known for his code of laws
Question about peoples associated with Mesopotamian Civilization
Akkadians, Assyrians and babylonians are built the Ziggurats.
- ruled them and the entire region known as the Fertile Crescent
- First empire in world history
- art and language influenced by Sumerians
-Most warlike people of the ancient world.
dominated the lands of Fertile Crescent from 1000-612BC.
The most beautiful art, Bas Relief depicting hunting scenes was created by Assyrian artists
- Conquered the entire region(The fertile Crescent)
- Hammurabi, known for his code of laws
Ancient Mesopotamia compared to Egypt
1. Egypt is protected from mountains and deserts both sides of the nile, but Mesopotamia is easy for invading armies to cross the tigris and Euphra Tes rivers.
2. Egypt made the Pyramids, but Mesopotamia made Ziggurats made with baked clay which were pyramidal in shape.
3. Egyptian Sculpture has a cubical quality, but mesopotamian sculpture has a conical quality
Question about Ziggurats
a flat topped pyramidal structure.
made of baked bricks.
was a temple to the Gods.
Started by the Sumerians
The other conquerers also built Ziggurats such as Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians.
The biblical tower of babel was a Ziggurat.
Question about Assyria
1. Most warlike people(The war God ASSUR was their chief God)
2. dominated the lands of the Fertile Crescent.
3. for a short period time conquered Egypt also
4. They had two capitals
5. They built Ziggurats and had a library
Question about Ancient Persia
1. Largest empire by conquering the entire region including Egypt, Asia Minor and parts of Europe.
2. the religion was Zoroastrans that would influence both Judaism and Christianity.
3. They had two capitals
4. They were originally a migratory people.
5. The art is very decorative and eclectic and they used animal forms.
Question about Aegean Civilization
1. The first civilization on the European continent.
2. The name comes from the Aegean Sea which lies between Modern day Greece and Turkey.
3. Aegean civilization is divided into three geographic areas.
- The cyclades or Cycladic islands, north of Crete
- Minoan on the island of Crete
- Mycenaean or Helladic on the mainland of greece in the Peloponessian peninsula.
4. It preceded the Great Greek Civilization.
Question about Minoan Civilization
1. The story of the Minotaur who was half-man, half-bull. The Minotaur lived in a Labyrinth where he devoured youths and maidens sent from mainland Greece.
2. the palaces were not fortified because they were on an island and protected by the sea.
3. The Minoans were not Greeks but migrated to the Crete from Asia Minor.
4. The palaces used wooden columns that have some similarity to the Dorian Columns of Ancient greece.
5. The Minoan language is called Linear A and Linear B.
6. The palaces possessed an extraordinary sewage system.
7. Minoan Pottery, also decorated with sea forms, some abstracted and geometric is very beautiful.
8. Figure in painting have thin waist.
9. Sculpture : no large scale, small sculpture of semi-clothed, bare breasted female figures
10. Harvester Vase : a relief of bare-chested men singing in praise of the richness of the harvest.
Question about Mycenaean Civilization
1. Palaces fortified by stone walls
2. One entrance to the palace.
3. A Bas relief showing two lions between a Minoan column that must have had some religious significance.
4. Mycenaeans were descendants of the Greeks
5. Both Mycenae and the Peloponessus and Minoan Crete were overrun by barbaric dorian Greeks.
Question about Greek Art
The western tradition has two major connections to the ancient world.
1. JEWS-monotheism, Man's relation to God
2. Greeks - Humanism, Individualism
Ancient Greece compared to Egypt
1. Greece is avery mountainous country, so it is very hard to unify, but Egypt is unified country.
Question about Greek pottery
Two major technical approaches
1. The black figure(figure is black, background is reddish)
2. The red figure(figure is red, background is black)
The black figure vase will not continue into the Classical and Hellenistic periods
Question about Greek columns
<Dorian or Doric>
1. example : Parthenon
2. The shaft column rises directly from the floor without the base.
<Ionian or Ionic>
1. example : the temple of Athena Nike
2. the shaft have a base at the bottom.
1. Corinthian column differs from the Ionian in that its capital is based on a design of Acanthus leaves, which makes it the most elaborate capital and the one most preferred by the Romans. The rest of that is basically the same as the Ionian.
Question about Greek sculpture
1. Discard the stiffness of Archaic Sculpture and try to achieve a more natural effect with Contraposto(Body shift)
2. No archaic smile
3. Faces and Bodies will always be idealized(no pot bellies or againg wrinkles) and appear Serene, exuding a sense of calm.
4. there are no realistic portraits in classical art.
5. Everything both architecture and sculpture will be based on perfected geometric proportions.
Question about architecture
Greek architecture would also be influenced by the post lintel architecture of Egypt and to a certain extent of Mesopotamia.
- Parthenon was constructed in a period of about 15 years. ( with dorian columns and the greatest of Greek temples)
- The romans were concerned with Interior space, but Greeks were interested in viewing their temples from the outside.
- Using a semi-circular space was their outdoor theater
<General Information about architecture>
1. Greek Architectural Orders
At the bottom are the floor(stylobate) and the stairs(stereobate).
In the Middle is the column
Above the column are the architrave and the frieze both which constitute the entablature.
Question about the history of ancient Greece(Athens and Sparta)
1. Dorian Greeks
2. develop as a militaristic, authoritarian slave state
3. very group-oriented
4. almost no art produced by the Spartans
5. Using weapons made of iron and put an end of Aegean civilization.
1. Ionian Greeks
2. Individualistic and create the first Democracy in the world in Athens (for only the free male citizens)
3. Women were second class citizens in Athens
4. The Athenians would become some of the very greatest creators of art of all time.
Question about Hellenistic art
1. starts with the death of alexander after he conquered persia.
2. Hellenistic art is more realistic, more overtly emotional, with more extreme movements, more melodramatic and more sentimental compared to Classical art.
3. the most outstanding sculpture
-Dying Gaul : depicted dying in agony with an open wound(never be shown in classical art)
-Laocoon : a depiction of theTrojan priest, Laocoon writhing in contorted poses
-Nike(Victory) of Samothrace : the winged Goddess in motion with her garments flowing
4. Most of Greek sculpture are Roman copies of the original because Romans loved Greek sculpture and they made copies of them.
Question about ancient Greek sculpture
Kouros : life-size sculpture of the standing male nude
Kore : standing clothed female figure
They will stand stiffly, looking straight ahead with a smile on their faces (the Archaic Smile)
Question about concepts associated with classical Greek sculpture
Question dealing with identifying Greek gods
1. Zeus(Jupiter), the supreme God
2. Hera(Juno), wife of Zeus
3. Poseidon(Neptune), God of the sea
4. Demeter(Ceres), Goddess of grain and agriculture
5. Hades(Pluto), God of the underworld and dead
6. Persephone(Proserpina), wife of hades, daughter of Demeter
7. Ares(Mars), God of war
8. Hephaistos(Vulcan), God of the forge, husband of Aphrodite
9. Aphrodite(Venus), Goddess of love
10. Eros(Cupid), God of love, the son of aphrodite
11. Apollo(Phoebus), God of the sun
12. Artemis(Diana), Goddess of the moon
13. Athena(Minerva), Goddess of wisdom
14. Dionysos(Bacchus), God of wine
15. Hermes(Mercury), Messanger of the Gods
Alexander the Great was the king of what country
Question about Etruscans
1. Etruria was the name of the land which comprised the area north of Rome and south of the PO valley in northern Italy.
2. There were 12 city-states; Veii, Chiusi, Perusia, Faesulae, Vulci and Tarquini
3.The burial concept is similar to Egyptians
4. The Etruscans were very good at creating metal(Bronze) objects, including Mirrors with engraved images on the back which they traded with the Greeks
5. The Etruscans were the most superstitious people of the ancient world with their belief in omens.
Question about Etruscans associated with Greece
1. Etruria was like ancient Greece , not a united country ,but comprised of city states.
2. Etruscan Art is influenced by Greek Art
3. Etruscan sculpture through influenced by Greek Sculpture is more vigorous looking.
4. Unlike the Greeks, the etruscans were good engineers made of the arch in their architecture.
5. Unlike the Greeks, they had a strong sense of family.
6.Etruscan temples were influenced in part by the Greeks
Question about Etruscans associated with Rome
1. they also enjoyed watching fights to the death which would influence the Romans.
2. At first the etruscans ruled Rome.
3. In that time, the Etruscans did much to improve the city and cleared the swamps and built up the city.
4. Romans got the use of the Arch from the Etruscans.
5. Roman conquered the etruscan city states and incorporated them into their republic.
Question about Rome, its history and the extent of the Roman Empire
Rome are republic and empire.
1. Augustus is the first Roman emperor.
2. Tiberius reign, the ministry and crucifixion of christ
3. Marcus Aurelius : the only equestrian statue( a man on a horse)
4. READ note
Question about Roman architecture
1. From the Etruscans, use of the arch, the barrel vaulted ceiling, groin vaulting and the building of the domed pantheon.
2. From the Greeks, the use of the Greek orders in Architecture
3. Colosseum influenced by the structure of the Greek theater which was a rising semi-circular structure, is completely circular building in the center of a city, Rome. The colosseum was used for bloody gladiatorial fights rather than theater.
4. Pantheon was built. It is noted for its huge interior space, topped by a dome with an opening at the top. It is the most influential Roman building.
Question about Roman sculpture, Pompeiian painting and the first Christian emperor
1. The realism of Hellenistic art in their approach to sculpture (Realistic portrait busts and statues which were needed due to the Roman belief in ancestor worship)
2. The most beautiful Pompeii painting is depicting mysterious religious rites using a beautiful red background color( known as Pompeiian red)
3. The first christian emperor is Constantine.
Question about Roman basilica
1. A roman secular building
2. It reversed the idea of a Greek temple, which had columns on the outside of the building and walls enclosing the inner rooms.
3. It also have groin vaulted rooms which become later the basic structure of the early christian church.
4. The interior area separated from the rest of the building would become the nave.
5. the area on the other side of the columns would become the side aisles and the groin vaulted rooms would become apses.
The greatest Roman Temple with a dome
The technique used in Egypt in Roman times in which pigments were mixed with hot wax in painting