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slightly movable joint

amphiarthrosis

The type of synarthrosis that binds each tooth to the surrounding bony socket is a:

gomphosis

Ex of synchondrosis:

epiphyseal plate

Flexion is defined as movement that:

decreases the angle between articulating elements

The movement that allows you to gaze at the ceiling is:

hyperextension

If an articulation permits only angular movement in the forward/backward plane, or prevents any movement other than rotation around its longitudinal axis, it is:

monaxial

The reason that the elbow and knee are called hinge joints is:

they permit angular movement in a single plane

The shoulder and hip joints are examples of:

ball-and-socket joints

The part(s) of the vertebral column that do(es) not contain intervertebral discs is (are) the:

coccyx

The joint that permits the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body is the:

shoulder joint

In the hip joint, the arrangement that keeps the head of the femur from moving away from the acetabulum is

the articular capsule enclosing the femoral head and neck

Lying on one's stomach is termed the __ position.

prone

The movement illustrated by a ballerina pointing her toes is __.

plantar flexion

The popliteal ligaments extend between the femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula, reinforcing the:

back of the knee joint

In which of the following conditions does the abdomen and the buttocks protrude because of an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature?

lordosis

The annulus fibrous and nucleus pulposus are structures that are associated with:

intervertebral discs

A movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane is:

abduction

The opposing movement of supination is:

pronation

The special movement of the thumb that enables it to grasp and hold an object is:

opposition

A characteristic decrease in height with advanced age may result from:

decreased water content of the nucleus pulposus in an intervertebral disc

When the nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus and enters the vertebral canal, the result is a(n):

herniated disc

Contraction of the biceps brachii muscle produces:

supination of the forearm and flexion of the elbow

The unique compromise of the articulations in the appendicular skeleton is:

the stronger the joint, the more restricted the range of motion

Even though the specific cause may vary, arthritis always involves damage to the:

articular cartilages

In a shoulder separation the:

acromioclavicular joint undergoes partial or complete separation

If you run your fingers along the superior surface of the shoulder joint, you will feel a process called the:

acromion

A __ fracture results when the shaft of the bone is broken and the adjacent bone is bent like a twig.

greenstick

immovable joint, May fuse over time, Fibrous or cartilaginous connections

synarthrosis

diarthrosis:

freely movable joint, also called synovial joints

A complete dislocation of the knee is extremely unlikely because of:

the seven major ligaments that stabilize the knee joint

When a ligament is stretched to the point where some of the collagen fibers are torn, the injury is called a:

sprain

An abnormal fusion between articulating bones in response to trauma and friction is:

ankylosis

The metacarpal and metatarsal bones articulate with the fingers and the toes, respectively. This creates what type of synovial joint?

condyloid

You can make a scary face by grabbing your bottom lip with your top teeth. When you do this, your mandible moves in an anterior direction. This is an example of:

protraction

Arthritis always involves damage to the:

articular cartilage

Pain and stiffness affecting the skeletal and/or muscular systems may be caused by:

rheumatism

The structures that pass across or around a joint, limiting range of motion and providing support, are:

tendons

A suture is an example of:

synarthrosis.

Symphysis & syndesmosis are examples of:

amphiarthrosis

Bones that participate in a synovial joint have __cartilage at the end of each bone.

articular

A meniscus is

a pad of fibrocartilage within a synovial joint.

A bursa is __ that decreases friction within a synovial joint.

a sac of synovial fluid

The correct term to identify a dislocated joint is a

luxation.

Abduction and adduction are movements that __.

only involve the appendicular skeleton

A pivot joint permits

rotation only.

Intervertebral articulations are

slightly movable.

The joint between the atlas and the occipital bone is an example of a __ joint.

condyloid joint

Both the elbow and knee are:

hinge joints

The carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb is an example of a

saddle joint.

Spreading your toes apart is

abduction

The hip and shoulder are multiaxial joints that permit what type of movements?

flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, circumduction, and rotation

The appendicular skeleton consists of __ bones

126 bones

The appendicular skeleton includes:

all bones besides axial skeleton, the limbs & the supportive girdles

Pectoral Girdle

also called shoulder girdle, connects arms to body, provides base for arm mov., connects with axial skeleton at manubrium

Scapulae

aka shoulder blades, articulate w arm & collarbone, anterior surface: subscapular fossa

The upper limbs consist of the:

arms, forearms, wrists, and hands.

Interosseous membrane:

fibrous sheet

Radial tuberosity

below neck, attaches biceps

Carpal bones

8, carpal bones allow wrist to bend & wrist.

Styloid Process:

stabilizes wrist joint

Ulnar notch

articulates with wrist & radius, distal end

The Four Proximal Carpal Bones:
:

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform

Metacarpal Bones:

five long bones of the hand, Numbered I-V from lateral (thumb) to medial (thumb is 1, pinky is 5), Articulate with proximal phalanges

Phalanges of the Hands

14 total finger bones

acetabulum

hip socket

Greater sciatic notch

mark on ilium, NEVER GIVE SHOT NEAR SCIATIC NERVE in butt (can use gluteus medias, vastus lateralis, deltoid to give IM injections)

Pubic symphysis

Gap between pubic tubercles, Padded with fibrous cartilage

Obturator foramen-

where hip muscles attach

The Pelvis consists of:

two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx, Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

Functions of lower limbs:

weight bearing, motion.

Patella

knee cap, sesamoid bone

Tibia:

aka. shinbone, larger than fibula

Tibial tuberosity:

attaches patella and knee cap ligaments

Body movement occurs at..

joints (articulations) where two bones connect

Joint structure determines..

direction and distance of movement (range of motion) Joint strength decreases as mobility increases

Functional classification is based on..

range of motion of the joint

Structural classification relies on..

the anatomical organization of the joint (how its made up)

Classifications of Joints:

Bony
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

Four types of synarthrotic joints: very strong

suture
gomphosis
synchondrosis
synostosis

Suture:

synarthrotic joint, only found in skull

Gomphosis, synarthrotic joint:

Fibrous connection (periodontal ligament)
Binds teeth to sockets

Synchondrosis, synarthrotic joint:

Is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones, epiphyseal cartilage of long bones, between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum

Synostosis, synarthrotic joint:

Fused bones, immovable:
metopic suture of skull
epiphyseal lines of long bones

Amphiarthroses

More movable than synarthrosis
Stronger than freely movable joint

Synovial joints (diarthroses)

aka movable joints, At ends of long bones, Within articular capsules, Lined with synovial membrane

Articular cartilages

Pad articulating surfaces within articular capsules:
prevent bones from touching

Smooth surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid:

reduce friction, Contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts, Functions of synovial fluid lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption

Cartilages:

cushion the joint:
Fibrous cartilage pad called a meniscus (articular disc)

Fat pads:

protect articular cartilages

Ligaments:

support, strengthen joints
sprain: ligaments with torn collagen fibers

Bursae:

pockets of synovial fluid that help lubricate joints, cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub

Tendons:

attach to muscles around joint, help support joint

Factors That Stabilize Synovial Joints

Prevent injury by limiting range of motion, Collagen fibers (joint capsule, ligaments), Articulating surfaces and menisci
Other bones, muscles, or fat pads, Tendons of articulating bones

Dislocation (luxation)

Articulating surfaces forced out of position, Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule

Subluxation

A partial dislocation

Types of Dynamic Motion

Linear motion (gliding), Angular motion, Rotation

Linear motion

aka, gliding, Two surfaces slide past each other, Linear motion happens in between carpal or tarsal bones

Angular Motion

Flexion (bring toward body), Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Reduces angle between elements

Extension (lengthens it out)

Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Increases angle between elements

Hyperextension

take it just a little bit beyond what is comfortable
Angular motion
Extension past anatomical position

Opposition-

touching each finger with thumb

Circumduction

Circular motion without rotation

Inversion:

(big toe laying on ground)
twists sole of foot medially

Eversion

(big toe tip on ground)
twists sole of foot laterally

Dorsiflexion:

flexion at ankle (lifting toes toward shin)

Plantar flexion:

extension at ankle (pointing toes)

Protraction

Moves anteriorly, In the horizontal plane (pushing forward)

Retraction

Opposite of protraction
Moving anteriorly (pulling back)

Elevation

Moves in superior direction (up)

Depression

Moves in inferior direction (down)

Lateral flexion

Bends vertebral column from side to side

Gliding Joints

Flattened or slightly curved faces, Limited motion (nonaxial), vertebrocostal joints, intercarpal and intertarsal joints, C2 to L5 spinal vertebrae articulate

Hinge Joints

Angular motion in a single plane (monaxial) 1 axis, elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints.

Pivot Joints

Rotation only (monaxial), proximal radio-ulnar joint.

Saddle Joints

Two concave, straddled (biaxial), first carpometacarpal joint.

Ball-and-Socket Joints

Round articular face in a depression (triaxial), shoulder & hip joint.

Joints:

cannot be both mobile and strong, The greater the mobility, the weaker the joint, Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments, not bone-to-bone connections

Intervertebral discs:

pads of fibrous cartilage, separate vertebral bodies

Vertebral Joints

Also called symphyseal joints

Intervertebral Ligaments

Bind vertebrae together, Stabilize the vertebral column

Slipped disc

Invades vertebral canal

Herniated disc-

Presses on spinal cord or nerves

Shoulder Joint

aka glenohumeral joint, Allows more motion than any other joint, Is the least stable; Ball-and-socket diarthrosis

Elbow Joint

A stable hinge joint
With articulations involving humerus, radius, and ulna

Humero-ulnar joint

Largest articulation of Elbow

Humeroradial joint:

Smaller articulation of elbow

Biceps brachii muscle

Attached to radial tuberosity, Controls elbow motion

Hip Joint

Also called coxal joint, Strong ball-and-socket diarthrosis, Wide range of motion

Knee Joint

A complicated hinge joint, Transfers weight from femur to tibia

Locking knees

Standing with legs straight: "locks" knees by jamming lateral meniscus between tibia and femur

Meniscus of the Knee

Medial and lateral menisci, Fibrous cartilage pads, At femur-tibia articulations, Cushion and stabilize joint, Give lateral support

How many ligaments are in the knee joint?

7

Rheumatism

A pain and stiffness of skeletal and muscular systems

Arthritis

All forms of rheumatism that damage articular cartilages of synovial joints

Osteoarthritis

Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic, factors affecting collagen formation, Generally in people over age 60

Rheumatoid Arthritis

An inflammatory condition, Caused by infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease, Involves the immune system

Gouty Arthritis

Occurs when crystals (uric acid or calcium salts), Form within synovial fluid, Due to metabolic disorders

Joint Immobilization

Reduces flow of synovial fluid, Can cause arthritis symptoms, Treated by continuous passive motion (therapy)

Bones and Aging

Bone mass decreases, Bones weaken, Increases risk of hip fracture, hip dislocation, or pelvic fracture

Bone Recycling

Living bones maintain equilibrium between, Bone building (osteoblasts), And breakdown (osteoclasts)

Factors Affecting Bone Strength

Age, Physical stress, Hormone levels, Calcium and phosphorus uptake and excretion, Genetic and environmental factors

The skeletal system

Supports and protects other systems, Stores fat, calcium, and phosphorus, Manufactures cells for immune system

Disorders in other body systems can cause

Bone tumors, Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Rickets (vitamin D deficiency)

Condylar Joint

aka ellipsoid joint, an oval articular joint nestles within a depression in the opposing face. Biaxial, radiocarpal joint.

Joints are classified according to:

ROM or anatomical organization

syndesmosis

bones connected by a ligament

symphysis

bones separated by fibrocartilage

Movements of the skeleton can occur only at a joint, which is also known as:

articulation

All diarthroses are categorized structurally as __ joints.

SYNOVIAL

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