Father of the theory of evolution who believed that human beings came from apes. He wrote The Origin of Species.
This theory states that certain traits are passed on due to natural selection and result in species changing over time.
Someone who studies early humans by looking at fossils and skeletal remains.
A person who studies archeology, or the study of various human cultures through the recovery of many materials including many features.
A form of estimation using radioisotope carbon-14 to approximate the age of organic remains in an archeological site.
Remains or imprints of plants preserved over many years in various rocks including sedimentary rock, asphalt remains, and coal which can be used to study ancient plants and other materials.
A unit of time on a geologic timescale, which is shorter than an era (10 Million Years)
The time period before written history
An object made by ancient civilizations or people which recent archeologists recover and use for studies.
Any creature that falls under the category of the "great apes"
A forty percent complete skeleton discovery of an Australopithecus afarensis, or a species within the category of hominid. She was rediscovered on November 24, 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia.
A thumb that is opposite of the finger on a hand, enabling one to grasp and handle objects, characteristic of primates.
The first part of the Stone Age ranging from 750,00 BC until the end of the last ice age in 8,500 BC.
A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.
A person who has no fixed home and who moves in order to search for water, food, and shelter depending on the season and climate of the area
A person who survived mainly on hunting and gathering
The beginnings of introducing agriculture and the domestication of animals
Form of farming where fields are cleared out and created by the cutting down of all previous plants and then burning them
To tame an animal through close association of humans
A more advanced type of human society
An adjective generally associated with the rural areas of the world, generalized by their simple living and other characteristics that come from living in rural areas outside of most civilizations
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
neolithic ice man
A man who was modernly discovered, but who lived in around 3300 BC found in the Otztal Alps. He is a well preserved mummy, the first one found in Europe, which brought much information about Chalcolithic humans
A family inspired with a passion in the field of anthropology. They devoted their lived to digging at various fossil site including Olduvai, where they made many discoveries as well as inspired many individuals to continue in their paths
A set of strict laws that segregated and discriminated against the native or colored people of South Africa.
He was a man who was opposed to the teachings of apartheid and segregation
african national congress
The oldest multiracial organization in South Africa
The separation of groups or people into isolation
To differentiate and occasionally prejudice against various groups of people and occasionally show favoritism over one or another
A system where on is born or places into a social status or class depending mainly on race, wealth, or birth
The act of being prejudiced against a certain race often involving segregation, discrimination, or persecution.
Resisting or working against something or someone in a polite or courteous manner rather than a rude or violent one
declaration of human rights
A declaration adopted by the United Nations to give rights to every human
He was a South African political leader who believed strongly in white power who used his power in many non-civil forms and was eventually assassinated for his evil works.
A group of people who congregate and settle in a relatively new area, often still ruled by their native land
It is the small town where on March 21, 1960 the African police shot and killed many natives who were rebelling against the Pass Law, which rid them of many rights. 178 people were injured or killed during the massacre
to pursue some special line of study, work, etc.; have a specialty
a person skilled in an applied art; a craftsperson
having the form of a wedge; wedge-shaped
a period in the history of humankind during which bronze weapons and implements were used
to trade by exchange of commodities rather than by the use of money
an organization, establishment, foundation, society, or the like, devoted to the promotion of a particular cause or program, esp. one of a public, educational, or charitable character
code of Hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
an agricultural region extending from the Levant to Iraq
an ancient region in W Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: now part of Iraq
a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies
a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group
in anthropology, the process by which a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another
the doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods
a title of an ancient Egyptian king
a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities
a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often, though not necessarily, triangular
a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb
to make (a dead body) into a mummy, as by embalming and drying
Designating to a pictographic script, of the ancient Egyptians, where the symbols are recognizable pictures of the things represented
a material on which to write, prepared from thin strips of the pith of this plant laid together, soaked, pressed, and dried, used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans
The culture that "dominated" the area in and around India from 2500 B.C. to 1600 B.C., where they came up with ideas such as writing, complex social and economic systems, urban planning, and water systems
A wind system that influences large climatic regions and reverses direction seasonally
a river in S Asia, flowing from W Tibet through Kashmir and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea. 1900 mi. (3060 km) long
the skeletal remains of Homo erectus, formerly classified as Sinanthropus pekinensis, found at Zhoukoudian, near Peking, China, in the late 1930s and early 1940s and subsequently lost during World War II
A pictorial representation of numerical data or relationships
a number of incised animal bones that were used for divination during the Shang dynasty period
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Rise and fall of successive families of rulers through a distinctive cycle
A political system based on the holding of all land in fief or fee
China's most influential scholar who was born in 551 B.C., and whose moral central around five strong relationships which were the relationship between ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, and friend and friend.
The act of respect for one's parents and ancestors emphasized by one of Confucius's relationships in his ruling.
A government of trained civil service who run the government, of which Confucius created during his reign.
A type of organization with strong philosophies
An ethical system where the natural order was highly emphasized through the creation of a universal force which controlled all things.
A Chinese thinker whose ideas eventually transformed into Daoism
An ethical system which believed that a highly effective and powerful government was the key to restoring order in society.
Yin and Yang
A symbol that represents the natural rhythms of life through the representation of contrasting colors combining together in unity just as China attempted to.
The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
Great Wall of China
A large wall which was built by poor workers to protect the Chinese empire from outside nomadic intruders from the north.
A group of nomadic peoples who came from the steppes who were pastoral and domesticated animals.
Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus mountains between the Black and Caspian Seas.
The movement of people or groups from one region to another.
A group of Indo-Europeans who occupied Anatolia around 2000 B.C.
Another Indo-European tribe who lived in the area between the Caspian and Aral seas around 1500 B.C.
The sacred literature of the Aryans which left a picture of their life and culture.
The most powerful traders along the Meditterranean after Crete's decline in 1100 B.C.
Places where the Phoenicians were able to trade with each other and other civilizations.
A writing system that used symbols to represent sounds and words.
The dynasty that took over after Liu Bang beat Xiang Yu, and which ruled for more than 400 years. It was also very influencial.
Government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examination which made up 18 ranks of the Cunfucius bureaucracy.
The act of using plants, such as hemp or bark, to create paper, which was first invented in China.
The caravan trails that crossed Asia which carried silk and other valuable trade goods.
Kinship groups in which steppe nomads traveled together, all descending from a common ancestor.
A Mongol clan leader whose name was Temujin, and who sought to unify the Mongols under his rule by defeating his rivals one by one.
The largest unified land empire in history which was created by Genghis Khan and his successors.
Responsible for the creation of the alphabet
Age of Empire
When kingdoms expanded their territory to take over parts of multiple continenets or many regions of a continent
Many different hominids lived during this period
The first people came to the Americas over the Bering Land Bridge during this part of the Paleolithic Era
This first happened in Mesapotamia where Sumerians made weapons and armor out of metal
This led to a huge growth of human population as food supplies became more steady
These Indo-Europeans took over the Indus Valley
These people believed in the after life and built tombs for the Pharaohs
These were the first people to record written laws that we have found
These people set up comercial outposts all over the Mediterranean Sea for trade
The first people to trade with coins
When this Chinese government fell the Zhou gained the Mandate of Heaven
This was one of the earliest civilizations in the world and it grew in Mesopotamia
This dynasty expanded Chinese power using a very strong bureaucracy and civil service to included territory along the Silk Road
This civilization was united by a shared written language even though they spoke different languages
This dynasty ruled China using the Feudal system
These Indo-Europeans took over the Anatolia Peninsula using iron and chariots
These Chinese legalists connected the existing wall to build the Great Wall of China
These people depended heavily on the Nile River
These people built the best laid out cities of the early civilizations