Single-celled organisms that lack internal structures surrounded by membranes that lack a nucleus. Ex. Bacteria
Single- and Multi-cellular organisms- cells containing internal, membrane-bound structures and have a true nucleus containing the cell's DNa. Examples: Plants, Animals, fungi, and protist
contains DNA, which controls cellular function (part of cell)
capture solar energy for photosynthesis (part of cell)
Modify, sort, and shipo proteins and lipds (part of cell)
ATP formation, energy (part of cell)
flexible boundary, controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell and maintains a chemical balance within the cell (part of cell)
Inflexible boundary that is thicker than the cell membrane that protects the cell and gives the cell its shape. Found only in Plants, fungi, most bacteria, and a few protists (part of cell)
Is the cell's balance between materials entering and exiting the cell using cell membrane. The cell controls proper internal concentrations of water, glucose, and other nutrients,while eliminating celular wastes (part of cell)
Transport is the movement of materials across the cell membrance without the use of the cell's energy. Different types of passive transport are shown in the box below (part of cell)
The movement of substances high to low concentration
The diffusion of water molecules from high to low concentration
transport: a process that drives large molecules across the cell membrance from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration- requires energy
Cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment
cell surrounds and removes materials from inside the cell
are catalytic molecules- they speed up specific reactions without being used up in the reation. Enzymes are proteins.
are molecules that a specific enzyme can chemically recognize and bind
are substrates undergo chemical changes to form new substances
area of the enzyme that each substrate fits into
is amount of energy used by substrate molecules to reach the transition state
proves useable energy for cell
simple sugar with ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms is 1:2:1
3 classes: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
Examples: Glucose, sucrose, starch, and cellulose (plants only to make cell walls)
organic compounds that have more (C-H) bonds and few O atoms than carbohydrates
commonly called fats and oil- they are insoluble in h20
used by cells for a long-term energy storage (and cell membranes)
chains of amino acids made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
important in muscle contraction, transporting oxygen in the blood, and the immune system
Examples: Collagen, enzymes, hemoglobin, insulin, and antibodies
complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information in cells in a code.
made up of 4 nucleotides (consists of a five- carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group)
Examples include ATP, NAD+, DNA, and RNA
The movement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of high to low concentration
The diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from higher water to lower water concentratoin
special molecule that stores and releases the energy
inorganic phosphate created when ATP releases stored energy
Organisms that can manufacture their own energy-providing food molecules
which is the molecule in the chloroplasts of plants that absorbs energy from sunlight
that contain the chlorophyll and where light reaction occurs
process autotrophic organisms trap energy from the sun and use this energy to build carbohydrates.
1st phase of photosynthesis ( reactions split water molecules, providing hydrogen and an energy source for the Calvin cycle. oxygen is given off. the energy from sunlight causes electrons in chlorophyll to gain energy and pass the energy to other molecules which are used to make ATP.
the light reaction
2nd phase of photosynthesis( form simple sugars using CO2 and H from water and occurs inside chloroplast's stroma
..... of breaking down carbohydrates from ATP into simple sugars (glucose)
(part 1 of cellular respiration) takes place in mitochonria and breaks down the products of glycolysis
the krebs cycle
(part 2 of cellular respiration)series or proteins in the motochondria that convert ADP to make 34 ATP by transfering electrons
electron transport chain
takes place in the cell's cytoplasm and is an anaerobic (without oxygen) process
glucose enters a cell by active transport. organisms get energy from carboyhdrates
makes ATP when glucose is broden down by enzymes into pyruvic acid
produces 2 molecules of ATP
The process of _______ releases carbon dioxide and water
Ancient prokaryotic organisms found in extreme environs (Moneran)
Prokaryotic organisms such as true bacteria (Moneran)
Uni/multicellular eukaryotic organisms in moist environ and lack complex organ systems
uni/multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move and absorb nutrients from decomposing dead organisms/ waste
photosynthetic multi-cellular eukaryotes w/cellulose cell walls and tissues that have been organized into organs and organ system
is the branch of biology dealing with the grouping and naming of organisms
multi-cellular eukaryotic consumers that do not have cell walls. Their tissues have been organized into complex organ systems such as the nervous, muscle, and digestive systems
(levels of classification) #1
(levels of classification) #2
(levels of classification) #3 ( based upon shared physical characteristics
(levels of classification) #4 (based on a more specific and limited set of characteristics)
(levels of classification) #5
(levels of classification) #6
(levels of classification) #7 ( the same "kind" of animal and can reproduce with other members of the same species
Like living organisms,_______ contain genetic material (either DNA or RNA), can reproduce, respond to their environment, and evolve. Unlike living organisms, viruses are not cells, do not contain organelles, and are unable to reproduce without a host cell
Nucleic acid DNA forms a complex biological polymer used for storing and transmitting information are made up of smaller subunits ____ are composed of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and nitrogen
Four nitrogen bases: ___ ___ ___ ___
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
Structure of DNA. DNA carries information. ________ helix nucleotides combine to form two ladder chains twisted with hydrogen bonds holds two strands of nucleotides together and the sides of the ladder are phosphate groups alternating with five- carbon sugars called ________
Double, double dioxyribose
______ strand of nucleotides, the sugar in RNA is _______
Four nitrogen bases: _______ _______ ________ _______
A, uracil, C, and G
________ RNNA transfers the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where the process of translation uses the genetic code on the RNA to form proteins from amino acieds (one strand)
______ RNA: carries the genetic information from DNA to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
RNA brings amino acids to the mRNA at the ribosomes so protein synthesis can take place.
A _______ is a group of three nitrogenous bases on an mRNA molecule that carries the code for a specific amino acid. An ______ is a set of three nitrogenous bases on a tRNA molecule that matches a codon on an mRNA molecule
________ trait that appeared in the first generation
_________ the trait that seemed to disappear. Today, scientists call these factors genes.
_______ is a list of the alleles for a particular trait in an organism
________ is the physical appearance of an organism, or how the alleles influence the function of that particular gene in the organism
________ if the two alleles in a pair are identical
_________ if the two alleles are different
Mitosis-_______ reproduction by simple cell division and DNA is divided equally between two daughter cells.
________predicted how traits are carried from one generation to the next using pea plants. When he manually fertilized parent plants tall T plants with short plants, the first generation of offspring (F1) were all tall T. When he let the F1 plants-pollinate, 3/4 of their offspring (F2) were tall and 1/4 of the F2 plants were short (recessive)
Law of _______ dominant allele will prevent the recessive allele from being expresse the recessie allele will appear when it is paired with another recessive allele in the offspring
Law of _______ fene pairs seperate when gametes are formed, so each gamete (sex cell) has only one allele of each pair.
Law of ________ ________ states that different pairs of genes seperate independently of each other when gametes are formed.
Meiosis (2 phases) - _______ how gametes (sex cells-sperm/eggs) are produced- reduces the number of chromosomes in the gamete to 1/2 the number of parent's chromosomes. When fertilization occurs and restores original chromosome number, the union of two gametes form a ______
Meosis 1 produces two cells containing half number of double stranded chromosomes- ________
Meosis 2 produces four cells, containing half number of single-stranded chromosomes- _______
Humans have ______ pairs of chromosomes
________ two chromosomes physically overlap and exchange chromosome material changes to DNA sequence within each chromosome
_________ __________ reassortment of chromosomes and the genetic information they carry
DNA gene ______ - changes in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule and cause a change in the protein. Mutagens harm DUNA such as tobacco- ultraviolet light, ionizing raddiation, free radicals.....
______ mutations- result of replication errors. (alternations that can occur during meiosis)
does not require another partner
quicker than sexual reproduction- many identical offspring in a short period of time
resulting organism is identical genetically to the parent organism
advantageous in stable environment where parent genotype is well-suited (colonizers of new environments)
genetic variability that results from the process of meiosis (greater diversity).
Increases chance offspring will have more advantageous traits that parents
Avantageous in a rapidly changing environmnet- diversity of the population increases chance some will both survive and reproduce
Disadvantage more time than asexual (mating, meiosis, offspring, growing)
_____ includes all organisms and the environments in which they live
______ factors the living organisms in an ecosystem Plants Climate, Animals Light, Bacteria Soil Water
______ factors nonliving factors in an ecosystem
____ the role that a species plays in its community and includes not only what an organism eats, but also where it feeds and how it affects the energy flow in an ecosystem
______ the place where the organism lives
_____- includes all the organisms in the same species in a given area at one time who compete for food, water, mates and other resources
______ is a collection of populations that interact with each other in a given area (does not live independently of other species) where balance is important. This changge in population sizer is known as. A growth rate can be positive, negative, or zero. If a population is provided with ideal conditiosn it will.
_______: the point at which the population becomes stable. 2 factors help stabilize it at that size
_______ includes all biotic and abiotic factors within a given area. Factors that affect thaqt may disrupt an ecosystem. is the interactions among the populations in a community and the physical surroundings of the community.
Abiotic Factors: 40C to 10C, annual precipitation is less than 25 cm, windy, permafrost
Biotic Factors: vegetation: treeless, grasses, sedges, lichens animals: arcticd hare, lemming, fox, snowy owl
Abiotic Factors: 20C to 30C, annual precipitation is greater than 200 cm
Biotic Factors: veg: broad-leafed evergreen trees, ferns animals: monkey, flying squirrel, birds/parrots, jaguar
tropical rain forest
Abiotic Factors: temp from 20C-49C; annual precipitatio nless than 25 cm
Biotic Factors: vegetation: brush, cacti, small plants
Animals: camels, antelope, rabbits, reptiles, arachnids
Abiotic Factors: 10C to 25C, annual precipitation 25 to 75 cm
Biotic Factors: veg: grasses, mosses, mushrooms,
animals: grazing herbivores: bison, antelope, predators---wolfs, lions
Abiotic Factors: 30C to 20C, annual precipitation 30 to 50 cm, soil thaws
Biotic Factors: veg:conifers, ferns, mosses, mushrooms
animals:wolf, weasel, black bear, woodpecker
Abiotic Factors: 10C to 25C, anual precipitation 75 to 125 cm
Biotic Factors: vegetatio: sugar maple, birch, pine
Animals: deer, rabbit, squirrel, raccoon
temperate deciduous forest
Open _____ (salt water)
Abiotic Factors: h2o depth decreases sunlight and changes temperature, salt content change h20 density
Biotic Factors: phytoplankton, fish, dolphins, whales, seals, sea birds, etc.
Rocky ______ (salt water)
Abiotic Factors: alternating exposure to direct sunlight and submergence, salinity changes, rocky
Biotic Factors: algae, sea urchins, clams, mussels, starfish, etc.
______ (salt water)
Abiotic Factors: large fluctuations in salinity, extreme temperature changes, etc.
Biotic Factors: algae, mosses, aquatic plants, insects, shrimp, crabs, amphibians, birds, etc.
Abiotic Factors: seasonal fluctuations of depth and temperature
Biotic Factors: freshwater plants, algae, insects, fish, wading birds, phytoplankton, zooplankton
primary source of this energy
(plants and bacteria): harness the Sun's energy to make energy-rich molecules
is the molecule that provides all organisms with a source of energy
producers are also called- meaning "self feeding' because they do not need other organisms
animals need to eat other organisms to obtain energy and matter
(consumers) meaning they need to feed on other organisms
are organisms that feed on dead bodies of animals an dplants or on their waste products
a way for energy to move through an ecosystem. A sunlight hits the Eart, the energy flows first to primary producers, then to consumers, and finally to decomposers
more complex interconnected system of food chains
______ shows how energy decreases at each succeeding level and the total energy transfer is only about _____ %. Not all the food consumed at each level is actually used for growth, and explains why population sizes decrease through the trophic levels
energy pyramids, 10%
_____ is the natural change that takes place within a community of an ecosystem
______ is the gradual development of a new community where no organisms have lived before. An example is the changes that take place after a volcanic eruption and the lava flow cools, hardens, and weather
Eventually, primary succession slows down and the community becomes stable
______ occurs when a natural disaster or human activity partally destroys a community where soil is already present and the different species replacing the pioneer species having less time to become a climax community
_____ resource: natural resource that is replaced or replenished by natural processes
_____ resources: are available only in limited amounts. Ex. Metals, mineralsm topsoil, fossil fuels
caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity. examples: dust, smoke, ash, carbon monoxide, and sulfur oxides. Smoke contains gases and particles.
a combination of smoke, gases, and fog and contains sulfur oxides reacts with water vapor in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid.
gases in the atmosphere trap sun's radiant energy and heats up Earth surface, radiating back into the atmosphere where heat cannot escape.
surrounds Earth and prevents lethal doses of sun's UV radiation from reaching organisms. thinning because of the release of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) into the atmosphere. CFCs are manufactured for refrigerator and air conditioner coolants and process of making styrofoams
caused by contaminants from sewers, industries, farms, and homes, sewage, chemical wastes, fertilizer, and dirty wash water can enter water
pollutants trickle down through the soil into underlying groundwater
"three Rs" _______ _______ _________
reduce, reuse, recycle
______ plants shift positions of roots,stems,leaves, and flowers
Instincts take longer and many be a combination of behaviors. _______ behavior. Includes automatic and instinctive bheaviors w/o thought. (reflex)
______ is the instictive, seasonal movemtn of a species triggered by a hormome (some use Earth's magnetic field.)
_______ is a condition in which the animals's body temperature drops, oxygen consumption decreases, and breathing rates decrease to just a few breaths per minute.
_____ behavior is a result of previous experiences that modifies animals' current behavior
______ a plant's response to gravity and causes the roots to grow downward and the stems to grow upward
_____ a plant's response to light (grow towards sun)
______ behavior: an animal's genetic compositition determines how it responds to stimulations
______ behavior: physical space that contains the breeding grounds, feeding area, shelter, or potential mates of an animal- reduces competition and increases survival
_______defense is incorporated into the physical structure of the organism. physical structures usch as claws, sharp ivory tusks, stingers, and shells. Camouflage involves colors and patterns that enable the organism to blend into its environment
______ defense occurs when the animal produces stinging sensations, pralysis, poisoning, or just a bad taste. neurotoxins in their tissues that attack the nervous system of their attackers. poisons and venoms used by snakes, toads, and stinging bees and wasps. Use other species' chemical defenses
Ex. monarch butterflyeats milkweed (poisonous to vertebrates)
1809 ______ presented theory that all life forsm evolved and that he driving force of evolution was the inheritance of acquired characterisitcs. changing due to the demands of environment. (giraffe neck)
_______ fathered informatoin- father of evoltuion
(Darwin's theory) ______ within a species were dependent ont he environment
_______ genetically coded traits that occur in organisms and enable them to be more successful in their environment, helping organisms survive and reproduce passed on advantageous traits to future generations
________ changes in a population that occur when organisms with favorable variatoins for that particular environment survive, reproduce, and pass these variatoins on to the next generation
2 geographically sperated from one another resulting in __________ ( no interbreedingbetween organisms of the same species that are located on different islands: finches)
Darwin knew nothing about ________. Scientists put together the concepts of natural selection with genetics after rediscovering Mendel's work decades after it was published in 1866 allowing scientists to account for phenotypic variations in populations.
________ radiation species diversity occurs in a relatively short time. It occurs when a population colonizes a new area ( many species finches in Galapagos evolving from 1 species)
_____ evoltuion. unrelated species may independently evolve superficial similarities because of their adaptations to similar environments
______ variety of organisms, their genetic information, and the communities they live in
_____ is the evoltuinof a new species that occurs due to changes in gene flow in populations of the ancestral species
_____ occurs when physical barriers cause populations to divide and prevent mating of individuals
_________ is evolution that occurs over a long period of time when adaptive changes accumulate slowlly and steakily over time in a population. Darwin believed in gradualism.
_________ speciation occurs quickly in rapid bursts, with long periods of stability
Radioisotope dating determine relative ages of fossils within a time period using Carbon ____
How many mass extinctions have we had?
________ acts on an organism's phenotype (indirectly on its genotype ) resulting in adaptaions allowing survival
________ reproductive efficiency of genotypes in an environmental population organism's structure, physiology, biochemistry, & behavior adapt.
_________selection does not increase the organism's structural or behavioral complexity and does not produce new genotypes and phenotypes.
_______ selection (normalizing selection) may maintain the status quo for a population in its genotype or in its phenotype in an environment.
_________ selection involves changes from one phenotypic property to a new one.
_________ selection results in the disappearance of intermediate or average forms between extreme variants.
Biological _____ (type of directional selection) results in fraction of offspring carrying allele that is resistant to pathogen who respond to the favorable environmental conditions and increases that populatoin variant.
Viruses are _______ evolving in response to changes in their environment
State the _______; ask a question
Do background _______; gather information
Form a _______; suggest an answer
Design an _______ ; perform an experiment to test the answer
Collect_____; record the results of the experiment; make a data table if necessary
_______ Data; interpret the results of the experiment
Draw _____; explain your results
Ask _____ ; identify new questions raised by the conclusions for further investigation
Communicate ____; share your results