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Vocabulary for Praxis II RAC Study Guid

Reading

Decoding+comprehension=reading

Psycholinguistics:

The study of the psychological states and mental activity associated with the use of language. Important focus is largely unconscious application of grammatical rules that enable people to produce and comprehend intelligible sentences

Pragmatics:

The purpose spoken language serves.

Orthography:

The set of rules of how to write correctly with the proper letters and spelling.

Onset:

Consonants before the rime *all letters before the first vowel

Emergent Literacy:

Literacy development is seen as emerging from children's oral language development and their initial, often unconventional attempt at reading (reading based on pictures) and writing (at first scribbling) hence the term emerging.

Diphthong:

A close blend of two vowel sounds. The letters "oi" in oil record a diphthong is treated in phonics instruction as if the reference is to a single sound. Oil, therefore is said to be composed of two sounds.

Decoding:

Using knowledge of the conventions of spelling-sound relationships and knowledge about prenounciations of irregular words to derive a pronounciation of written words.

Criterion-Referenced assessment:

The type of assessment in which a child's score is compared against a predetermined criterion score to determine if the child is performing acceptability or unacceptability. Rather than comparing against peers (norm-referenced tests) the criterion or "acceptable score" is set by the author of the assessment. Scored as either above or below criterion.

Balanced Literacy:

An approach to reading instruction that strikes a compromise between phonics approaches and whole language approaches ideally, the most effective strategies are drawn from the two strategies and synthesized together.

Language Experience Approach (LEA):

Supports childrens concept development and vocabulary growth while offering many opportunities for meaningful reading and writing activities. Another LEA benefit is the development of shared experiences the extend childrens knowledge of the world around them while building a sense of classroom community. Major purpose is to impact the understanding that anything that can be said can be written, and anything that can be written can be read or said.

Phonemic awareness:

The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds-phonemes- in spoken words.
Inflectional ending:
Often change meaning of words usually an "s"
Ex: cat-cats

The reading product:

The product: Communication
By the writer to the reader, Communication results from the readers construction of meaning, Dependent on comprehension.

Syntax:

The grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.

Meta Language:

A language used to describe another language.

Root:

A bound morpheme. It cannot stand alone, but is used to form a family of words.

Assessment:

Using data to determine abilities and knowledge about a popular topic.

Five strands of language arts:

1.Speaking
2.Listening
3.Reading
4.Writing
5.Thinking

Morphology:

The study of meaningful units of language and how they are combined to form words.

SQ3R:

Survey
Question
Read, Recite, Review

Behavioristic Theory:

Children learn language through stimulus response and reinforcement
Infants learn oral language from adults by imitation, rewards, and rehersal.

Innatist Theory

Believed that language learning is natural for human beings

Interactionist Theory:

Compromise between innatist and behavioristic , language is rule governed, learned from interaction with others.

Phonic Instruction:

Synthetic-instructs speech sounds, nonsense words
Analytic-sight words first, avoid distortion

Reading Recovery:

Temporary Intervention for first grade, one on one instruction with a trained specialist

Emergent Literacy:

Association of print with meaning, begins very early in a childs life and continues until the child reaches conventional reading/writing.

Type of Comprehension:

Literal Comprehension-acquiring information directly stated, most basic
Higher-Order Comprehension- interpretive critical and creative reading.

Steps to Decoding words

1.Apply context clues
2.Look at sound blends
3.Structure clues
4.Sound it out
5.See a dictionary

Stages of second language acquisition:

1.Preoccupation-silent stages
2.Early production-1/2 word sentences
3.Speech emergence-3/4 word sentences
4.Intermediate fluency-errors are developmental and students will outgrow them as they are exposed to what is appropriate.
5.Fluency

The writing process:

1.Planning-gather, shape, and organize ideas
2.Drafting-putting your ideas into print
3.Revising- rethink, reorder, reshape
4.Editing- clear effective grammatically correct writing.
5.Proofread- correct spelling and mechanics.

Cloze Instruction:

A technique that develops comprehension by deleting target words from a text. In encourages the student to think about what word would make sense in the sentence in the context of the entire story.

Making and Writing Words:

Targets grade 2-6, word indentification, word analysis, and meaning vocabulary.

Guided Reading:

Targets grades 1-6, fluency, and literal comprehension.

Readers Theater:

Targets grades 2-6, fluency, literal comprehension, and nonliteral comprehension. Dramatic interpretation of a play script through new oral interpretive reading. The story theme and character development are conveyed through intonation, inflection, and fluency of oral reading.

Cueing system:

Semantic: meaning,
Grapho- phonic: sounds,
Syntactic: grammar,
Pragmatic: Social

★Formal Assessment

The use of a testing instrument based on extensive normative data and for which reliability and validity can be verified.

★Miscue Analysis--

Can be employed to assist professionals in gaining insight into the reading process. It involves both a quantitive and qualitative component. Miscue analysis also helps professionals evaluate reading material.

★Invented Spelling--

Temporary unconventional spelling resulting from children's attempts to associate sounds with letters.

★Kinesthetic--

Pertaining to body movement and muscle feelings

★Literature Circle--

Groups established to allow students to exchange ideas about books that they are reading.

★Disaggregated Data--

Scores that show the progress of subgroups of students, including racial/ethnic groups, economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, and students that show limited English proficiency.

★Genre--

A style of expressing yourself in writing.

★Readability--

An objective measure of the difficulty of written material.

★Norm-Referenced Assessment--

Type of assessment that allows an individuals score to be compared against the scores of their peers who have taken the same assessment. Raw score can be converted and compared as percentiles.

★Metacognition--

An awareness of ones own thinking processes and how they work. The process of consciously thinking about one's learning or reading while actually being engaged in learning or reading.

★Portfolio--

A collection of work or artifacts gathered over a period of time.

★Environmental Print--

Words that children frequently see in the world around them.

★Grapheme

A linguistic term for letter.

★Semantics--

The study of language, is concerned with the meaning of words, expressions and sentences, often in relation to reference and truth.

★Cloze--

Method of assessment wherein a word is eliminated from a passage, and the child's task is to use context clues to fill in the blank. Can be used to test reading comp, language comp, vocabulary, syntax, semantics. If a word bank is given, it's a modified cloze task

★Anticipation Guides--

Sets of declarative statements related to materials about to be read that are designed to stimulate thinking and discussion.

★Schema--

First used by Piaget in 1926. This learning theory views organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures which represent one's understanding of the world.

★Idiom--

A phrase or expression that differs from the literal meaning of the words, a regional or individual expression with a unique meaning. (Ex: it's raining cats and dogs)

★Zone of Proximal Development--

The span between the actual skill level of a student and the potential skill level that student can reach.

★Summative Assessments--

✴Assessment of learning-progress at completion
✴Given at the end of the lesson
✴Example: TCAP and Praxis

★Similie--

A comparison using "like" or "as"

★Scaffolding--

Providing support through modeling or feedback and then withdrawing support gradually as the learner gains competence.

★Multiple Intelligences--

Several distinct areas of potential that readers possess to different degrees.

★Homograph--

Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and meanings. They may or may not be pronounced the same. (Ex: can=metal, can=ability)Graphically the same

★Big Books--

A large, oversized book that the whole class can share together, often characterized by predictability, repetition, and rhyme.

★Bloom's Taxonomy--

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95% of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall at the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation.

★Writing Workshop--

A framework for teaching writing that includes a mini lesson designed to improve specific skills, a writing time when students are engaged in authentic writing, a conference time when students meet which the teacher individually, and a sharing time when students read or listen to the sharing of a student's written selection.

★Word Sorts--

Categorization activities that involve classifying words into categories.

★Reciprocal Teaching--

Refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialog between teachers and students regarding segments of the text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
*Purpose--to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text.

★Story Grammar--

A set of rules that define story structures.

★Reader's Theater--

Reading aloud from scripts in a dramatic style.

★Frustration Level--

A level of reading difficulty with which a reader is unable to cope; when reading material is on this level, on an IRI, the reader usually recognizes less that 90 percent of the words that he or she reads or comprehends less than 50% of what he or she reads.

★Anecdotal Record--

A written account of a specific incident or behavior in the classroom.

★Sight Words--

Words that are recognized immediately, without having to resort in analysis.

★Diagraph--

A pair of vowels or consonants that stands for a sound associated with either letter making up the pair. The letters "au" in [au]to are a diagraph the letters "th" in ba[th] are also a diagraph. Creates its own sound

★Alphabetic Principle--

The idea that letters represent sound and that printed letters can be turned into speech. (and visa versa)

★Phoneme--

A linguistic term for speech sound. (Ex: the initial phoneme in past is/pl.)

Word Identification Issues (Strategies to use)

1.Collaborative Reading
2.Directed Reading Activity
3.Echo Reading
4.Guided Reading
5.Impress Method
6. Language Experience Approach
7.Making Words
8.Making and Writing Words
9.Paired Reading
10.Repeated Readings
11.Retrospective Miscue Analysis
12.Shared Reading Approach
13.Sight Word Approach
14.Summary Experience Approach
15.Talking Books
16.Word Sorts
17.Word Walls

Word Analyses Issues (Strategies to use)

1.Analytic (Implicit) Phonics
2.Chunking
3.Framed Rhyming Innovations
4.Making Words
5.Making and Writing Words
6.Phonogram Approach
7.Repeated Readings
8.Sound Boxes
9.Synthetic (Explicit) Phonics
10.Word Analogy Strategy
11.Word Probe Strategy
12.Word Sorts
13.Word Walls
14.Echo Reading
15.Guided Reading

Fluency Issues (Strategies to Use)

1. Chunking
2. Collaborative Reading
3. Impress Method
4. Language Experience Approach
5. Paired Reading
6. Readers' Theater
7. Repeated Readings
8. Shared Reading Approach
9. Summary Experience Approach
10. Talking Books

Meaning Vocabulary Issues (Strategies To Use)

1. Cloze Instruction
2. Contextual Processing
3. Directed Reading Activity
4. Experience-Text-Relationship
5. Feature Analysis Grid
6. Framed Rhyming Innovations
7. Making and Writing Words
8. Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
9. Webbing
10. Word Walls

Sentence Comprehensio

1. Alternate Writing
2. Cloze Instruction
3. Chunking
4. Contextual Processing
5. Echo Reading
6. Framed Rhyming Innovations
7. Retrospective Miscue Analysis
8. Story Writing Approach

Literal Comprehension Issues (Strategies To Use)

1. Alternate Writing
2. Cloze Instruction
3. Directed Reading Activity
4. Directed Reading Thinking Activity
5. Experience-Text-Relationship
6. Generative-Reciprocal Inference Procedure
7. Graphic Organizer
8. Guided Reading
9. Herringbone Technique
10. Imagery Instruction
11. K-W-L
12. Opinion-Proof Approach
13. Prediction Logs
14. Question-Answer Relationships
15. Readers' Theater
16. Reciprocal Teaching
17. ReQuest
18. Retelling
19. Say Something
20. Story Drama
21. Story Maps
22. Story Writing Approach
23. Summarization
24. Summary Experience Approach
25. Thematic Experience Approach
26. Think-Aloud Approach
27. Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
28. Webbing

Nonliteral Comprehension Issues (Strategies to use)

1. Alternate Writing
2. Directed Reading Activity
3. Directed Reading Thinking Activity
4. Experience-Text-Relationship
5. Generative-Reciprocal Inference Procedure
6. Imagery Instruction
7. Journal Writing
8. K-W-L
9. Literature Circles
10. Opinion-Proof Approach
11.rediction Logs
12.Question-Answer Relationships
13. Question Generation Strategy
14. Readers' Theater
15. Reciprocal Teaching
16. ReQuest
17. Retelling
18. Say Something
19. Story Drama
20. Story Maps
21. Story Writing Approach
22. Summarization
23. Thematic Experience Approach
24. Think-Aloud Approach
25. Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
26. Webbing

Metaphor:

A direct comparison NOT using the words "like" or "as".

Rhyming:

Words that have the same ending sound (ex: cat, bat, sat).

Reading Workshop:

Instructional procedure consisting of a minilesson, a status-of-the-class report, reading or writing, and sharing.

Expository Text:

Text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic. Contrast of narrative.

Tactile:

Pertaining to the sense of touch.

Retelling:

A student's recounting of a story or other material that he/she has read or heard.

Graphic Organizer:

Visual depictions of text material, such as webs.

Alternative Assessment:

All types of assessment other than standardized tests.

Think-Alouds:

Verbalizing aloud the thought processes present as one reads a section orally.

Rubrics:

A set of criteria used to describe and evaluate a student's level of proficiency in a particular subject area.

Basel Reader:

A kind of book that is used to teach reading. It is based on an approach in which words are used as a whole. The words are used over and over in each succeeding lesson. New words are added regularly.

Direct Instruction:

Teacher control of the learning environment through structured lessons, goal setting, choice of activities, and feedback.

Predictable Books:

A book that is written with repetitive and rhythmic language patters, often featuring familiar concepts.

Homonym:

Words that sound the same but are spelled differently. (Ex: cents/sense/scents) or (nights/knights).

Figurative Language:

Nonliteral language.

Auditory Discrimination:

The ability to differentiate among sounds.

Performance-Based Assessment:

A measurement of a student's ability to create an assigned response or product to demonstrate her or his level of competence.

Critical Reading:

Reading for Evaluation

Visual Discrimination:

Ability to differentiate between different shapes.

Syntactic Clue:

A clue derived from the word order in sentences.

Trade Books:

A book for sale to the general public.

Visualization:

Picturing events, places, and people described by an author.

Writing Process:

A student centered approach to writing consisting of prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.

Linguistics:

The study of human speech.

IRI Informal Reading Inventory:

An informal instrument designed to help the teacher determine a child's independent, instructional, frustration, and capacity levels.

Instructional Level:

A level of difficulty at which the reader can read with an understanding with teacher assistance; on an IRI, the reader can ordinarily recognize at least 95 percent of the words in a selection and comprehend at least 75 percent of what he/she reads.

Hyperbole:

An extreme exaggeration.

Rime:

All the sounds of a syllable from the vowel to the end of the syllable. For example: street - "eet" is the rime.

Narrative Text:

Text which conveys a story or which relates to events or dialog. Contrast with expository text. Narrative style: storylike presentation.

Phonics:

The association of speech sounds with printed symbols.

Guided Reading:

An instructional model of delivery that provides structure and purpose for reading.

Story Mapping:

Making graphic representations of stories that make clear the specific relationships of story elements.

Running Record:

A strategy for recording miscues during a students oral reading.

DRTA-Directed Reading, Thinking Activity:

1. Make predictions from title clues (book not open). All excepted, all students given opportunity, teacher NO predictions. 2. Make predictions from picture clues (open book to 1st picture) Look at initial picture clues, gives opportunity to change predictions. 3. Read the material. Read predetermined amount. 4. Assess the accuracy of predictions and adjust the predictions. Revise and ask for predictions for next part of story. 5. Repeat till all parts of the lesson have been covered (4 or 5 stops). Read next part of story, check predictions, justify predictions, revise predictions, repeat until story is complete.

7 Thinking Strategies:

1. Questions-QAR.
2. Think Alouds.
3. Use of Prior Knowledge-Schema.
4. Inferences.
5. Visualize.
6. Determine what's important.
7. Synthesize-bring together and evaluate.

ReQuest:

Students and teacher read material silently. Teacher closes book and allows students to ask question about passage. Next, teacher questions students. Repeat for remaining segments of text. When students have enough info, stop questioning and begin predicting. Students read remainder of text silently. Teacher conducts follow up discussion.

Before Reading Strategies:

Before reading- Anticipation Guides, background knowledge backpack, catapult, give one-get one, semantic mapping, writing before reading, creative drama.

Cloze Procedure (during reading):

Teacher deletes information from a passage and asks students to fill it in as they read, using their own knowledge, syntax, semantics, and graphic clues. Types: Deletions of letters, word parts, whole words, phrases, clauses, or whole sentences. Use of standard-sized blanks aid in using semantic and syntactic clues. Use of varying size blanks based on word length aids in word recognition skills as well.

Maze procedure -

Use of multiple-choice answers. Created by Wilson Taylor in 1953.

3 Readability levels-

Independent- 95% and above
Instructional- 93-95%
Frustrational- 93% and below

K-W-L Method:

K- What I know, W-What I want to know, L-What I learned.

Guided Reading:

Teacher works with small group of students w/similar ability. Teacher introduces stories and assist learning to develop independent reading strategies. Each student reads text independently. Emphasis on reading challenging books over time. Regroup as needed. Goal is for students to read one time with minimum support, then again for independence and fluency.

InQuest (during reading):

Investigative questioning. Encourages reader interaction with the text. Combine students questioning with creative drama. Procedure-teacher stops reading at a critical point in story. Students assume role of major character. Other students take on role of investigators who question and evaluate main character. TEACHER MUST model procedure by taking on diff roles.

Vocabulary Strategies:

Rivet, Splash and Sort, Vo-back-ulary, Pick up sticks, Mix Freeze Pair, Finger Twister, SWAT, SLAP-Say the word, Look for clues, Ask what word means, Put familiar word in place of unfamiliar word, S2-D2-Say, Spell, Define, Draw, Vocabulary BINGO.

DRA-Directed Reading Activity:

1. Motivation and Development of background: connect readers experience with story. Motivational. Determine readers background if capable of understanding story. Build readers background.
2. Directed story reading (oral and silent): provide purpose for reading. Study guide, questioning, or predicting.
3. Strategy-or skill-building activities: direct instruction in one or more word recognition or comprehension strategies or skills.
4. Follow-up practice: practice of strategies and skills sometimes in workbook.
5. Enrichment activities: connect story with art, music, creative writing, drama. Do enrichment activities before rather than after!

Automaticity:

Refers to the speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling. It is the goal of word study instruction and frees cognitive resources for comprehension.

The Reading Process:

Sensory, perceptual, sequential, experiential, thinking, learning, association, affective, constructive.

Consonant Diagraphs:

Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme or sound. (eq: /ch/, /sh/, /wh/, /ph/, /th/)

Cognates:

Words that are related by some virtue of being derived from a common origin. (ex: decisive and decision)

Context Clues:

Using words or sentences around an unfamiliar word to help clarify it's meaning.

Young Adult Literature:

Became genre:1960.
Prior to 1960 - very diadactic (preachy).
3 Major Books: 1. The Outsiders - Hinton. 2. The Pigman. 3. Mr and Mrs Bojo Jones.
Approximate length: 125 to 250 pages.
Characters age: 12-20.
Award for YAL: Printz.
Common Themes: Self discovery, gender issues, adolescent problems.

Whole Language:

An approach to reading instruction that de-emphasizes letter-sound relationships and emphasizes recognition of words as wholes.

Story Elements:

Plot,
Conflict Dilemma (man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. self, man vs. society),
Resolution: Ending to story conflict,
Setting: Location in time and place,
Characters,
Theme: What ties story together,
Style: word selection,
Point of view,
Stereotypes.

Segmenting:

Separating the individual phonemes or sounds of a word into discrete units. (Ex: cat = /c/ /a/ /t/)

Suffix:

An affix occurring at the end of a word, base, or phrase.

Schwa:

Unstressed, deemphasized sound that closely resembles the short u sound. Written as an upside down e. (Ex: the "a" in about)

Blend:

A synthesis of speech sounds. The two sounds. The two sounds in "fr" in [fr]ee are a blend.

Morpheme:

The smallest meaningful unit of language. (Ex: in the word cats, the "s" is a morpheme because it denotes more than one cat.)

Fry Readability Graph:

Edward Fry, formerly of the Rutgers Univ Reading Center, created one of the most widely used, and easy to use readability graphs for educators.
Randomly select (3) 100 word passages from a book or article. Plot the average # of Syllables and the average # of sentences per 100 words on the graph to determine grade level of the material.

Formative Assessment:

Assessments for learning. Provides info during instructional process before summative assessments. Ongoing.

Alliteration:

The repetition of initial phoneme either across syllables or across words. (Ex: Happy hippos hop on Harry.)

Code-Switching:

Refers to an alternating between one or more languages/dialects.
Also occurs within a particular language.
Use different forms, depending on who/where we speak to a person.
There are different degrees of formality and informality.

Consonant Blends:

Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds. (ex: BLock, STRing)

The Reading Act:

Reading Process + Reading Product = The Reading Act.
Ultimate goal of any reading act is comprehension. Principles of reading instruction.

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