Ch. 21 Sections 1,2

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Biomes

Very large climatic regions that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems within them.

Tundra

A cold and largely treeless biome that forms a continuous belt across northern North America, Europe, and Asia.

Permafrost

A permanently frozen layer of soil under the surface, characterizes the tundra.

Tropical Forests

Occur near the equator, in the region between 23.5 N and 23.5 S, known as the tropics.

Canopy

The treetops form a continuous layer, which shades the forest floor.

Epiphyte

A plant that uses another plant for support, but not for nourishment.

Coniferous Trees

Temperate forests can be characterized by the type of tree that is most common. These trees bear seeds in cones and tend to be evergreen.

Deciduous Trees

Trees that shed their leaves each year.

Temperate Decidous Forests

Trees that lose all of their leaves in the fall and regrow them each spring.

Taiga

South of the tundra and north of the temperate regions, a forested biome dominated by coniferous trees suchas pines, firs, and spruces.

Temperate Grasslands

Ussually form in the interior of continents, at about the same latitude as temperate decidous forests.

Savanna

Tropical or temperate grasslands that have scattered deciduous trees and shrubs.

Chaparral

A biome that is dominated by dense, spiney shrubs and has scattered clumps of coniferous trees.

Deserts

Areas that receive an average of less than 25 cm of rain fall per year.

Aphotic Zone

Most of the ocean is cold and dark. This zone is where sunlight can't penetrate it.

Photic Zone

The part of the ocean that receives sunlight.

Intertidal Zone

The area of shoreline that is twice daily covered by water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide.

Neritic Zone

Zone that extends from the intertidal zone over the continental shelf and to relateively shallow water depths of about 180 m.

Oceanic Zone

The deep water of the open sea.

Pelagic Zone

The open ocean.

Benthic Zone

The ocean bottom.

Plankton

Communities of small organisms that drift with the ocean currents.

Estuary

Occurs where freshwater rivers and streams flow into the sea.

Eutrophic Lakes

Lakes that are rich in organic matter and vegetation, so the waters are relatively murky.

Oligotrophic Lakes

Lakes that contain little organic matter.

Freshwater Wetlands

Areas of land that are covered with fresh water for at least part of each year.

2.3 Miles

What is the average depth of the ocean?

8.6 Miles

How deep is the deepest part of the ocean?

Upwellings

Strong currents that carry nutrients from the ocean bottom.

Coral Reefs

What part of the ocean is productive and rich in species?

Mutualistic

Most speceis in the reefs have what kind of relationship.

Bays and Mudflats

Examples of Esturary.

Ground Water

Eutrophication will never occure in any bodies of water conected to what?

Marshes and Swamps

Examples of water wetlands.

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