Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
Which of the following is not a known side effect of having insufficient fat stores?
Elevated blood pressure
Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
He has central obesity
All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories
All of the following are characteristics of anorexia nervosa except
in those who recover, energy intakes return to normal
All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat except
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
it is too variable to measure
Typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the following except
Diet recommendations for people with bulimia nervosa include all of the following except
eat colds foods to stimulate satiety
What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?
Compliance is better
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?
The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except
a slow re-gain of the lost weight
All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
All of the following are features of high-protein diets except
they provide for long-term weight maintenance
Which of the following is known to cause a reduction in fat cell number in mice?
injection of leptin
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors?
High LDL and low HDL
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?
Which of the following is a relation of "spot reducing" to exercise?
No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body
Of the following, which is not among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person?
Forced awakening during the night for supplemental meals and snacks
Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
What is the primary reason that laxatives are generally not effective agents for losing weight?
they act on the large intestine rather than the small intestine
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?
Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration?
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
they must be consumed daily
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of
The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?
some anticancer drugs
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?
Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except
it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?
energy release from energy-yielding nutrients
Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
They have similar structures similar to Vitamin A
Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?
deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed
obligatory water excretion
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?
one-half as much
How much calcium would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?
Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
they can induce dehydration
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet
Common side effects of taking a high-dose calcium supplement include all of the following except
increased iron absorption
Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?
What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?
The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals
Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements?
common antacids are used as a source of calcium
Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except
they are usually sold as a very pure product
Which of the following is characteristic of calcium nutrition in teenagers?
the intake of calcium is higher in boys than girls because they eat more food
What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?
Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by
inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
sodium and chloride
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?
Under which of the following conditions are certain supplements of zinc reported to be beneficial?
in the treatment of toxicity from certain other metals
Your uncle Carlos has survived two heart attacks, and recently asked if he might be deficient in selenium, which he had just heard is essential to heart health. You are aware of his food habits and explain that his condition could not be the result of a dietary deficiency of selenium because
selenium is prevalent in most food groups
Which of the following describes one aspect of iron toxicity?
among men in the united states, it is twice as common as iron deficiency anemia
Which of the following is characteristic of lead in the body?
blood concentrations correlate with low IQ scores
Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires all of the following trace minerals except
All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except
galvanized liver and kidneys
Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition?
whole grains represent an excellent source
Which of the following describes the role of protein in the diet of competitive athletes?
The need for protein in weight lifters and marathon runners may be up to 75-100% higher than the RDA
Which of the following is least likely to affect the size of the body's glycogen stores?
Type of supplements taken
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
Which of the following is a characteristic of oxygenated water use in athletes?
The oxygen in the water is without benefit
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
What would be the minimum amount of body water loss necessary to bring about a reduction in work capacity of an average 165-pound individual?
1 1/2 liters
Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity?
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Which of the following describes a characteristic of fat use during physical activity?
Athletes who consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for even one day are at risk for depleting their glycogen reserves quickly
During the first 20 minutes of moderate exercise, the body uses about
20% of the available glycogen.
What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Diluted juice or cool water
Mary is 15 years old and has just joined her high school swim team. After the first three months of training and competing, her coach sends the team for mandatory physical examinations and routine blood tests. When Mary got home, she told her mom that she has sports anemia. Why shouldn't Mary begin taking iron supplements as a way to treat this condition?
The anemia is not correctible by extra iron intake
Which of the following is a known side effect of prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of zinc supplements?
Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption
What formulation of zinc has been found effective in treating the symptoms of the common cold?
You have just been elected mayor of Smalltownville, where the major source of drinking water is from wells. What major health problem would be expected among the children of Smalltownville?
Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
Thyroid gland enlargement
Which of the following is a common example of iron contamination in the diet?
Using an iron skillet to scramble eggs can triple their iron content
Which of the following is a prominent feature of mild iodine deficiency in children?
Poor performance in school
Which of the following is the most effective and least costly strategy for preventing an iron deficiency?
Eat small quantities of meat, fish, and poultry frequently together with liberal amounts of vegetables and legumes
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
Which of the following characteristics are shared by copper and fluoride?
Both may be obtained from drinking tap water
Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Which of the following is characteristic of dieting and ketosis?
Body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories
What is the primary reason for the weight loss that accompanies high-protein diets?
Reduced energy intake
Fraudulent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as
To help maximize the long-term success of a person's weight-loss program, which of the following personal attitudes should be encouraged in the individual?
Strongly believing that weight can be lost
As a new assistant in a weight loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart?
Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except
our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake.
Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa
Which of the following is a characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue?
Very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except
high blood pressure.
The thermic effect in people who regularly consume a high-protein diet for 10 years would, in theory, prevent them from gaining approximately how many pounds?
All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except
reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.
When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people?
All of the following are characteristics of the results of weight loss surgery except
medical supervision in the postsurgery period is required only for the first 6-9 months.
Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual?
Eat a large number of small meals
To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling
Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?
Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cornflakes on a per-gram basis
All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
processed foods are a major source
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
High blood pressure
Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?
It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels
All of the following are features of bone health and smoking except
smokers adapt by increasing their calcium absorption and reducing bone resorption rate.
The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?
10 years later
In a normal individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?
A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing
A person who suddenly begins sprinting will exhaust the muscle's supply of creatine phosphate in about
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?
The recommended amount of dietary carbohydrate (g/kg body weight) for an athlete training for a marathon is approximately
For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
it is rarely fatal
A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
Which of the following is not derived directly from cardiorespiratory conditioning?
Which of the following is a benefit of glucose polymer sports drinks as compared with sugar-containing drinks?
They attract less water in the GI tract and thus allow more water to remain in circulation
An athlete who believes in soda loading as a means of improving performance would, right before the event, consume
Which of the following is an effect of physical fitness on fat metabolism?
Fatty acid concentrations in the blood rise significantly after the first 20 minutes of physical activity
Which of the following is a feature of iodine in nutrition?
Processed foods in the United States do not use iodized salt
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
DNA content of red blood cells
Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
Peaches and strawberries
Approximately how much higher is the RDA for iron for a vegetarian woman of childbearing age compared with her nonvegetarian counterpart?
Which of the following mechanisms explains why fluoride is effective in controlling tooth decay?
It helps form decay-resistant fluorapatite
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition?
On average, women do not eat enough iron-containing foods
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Increase in its size to trap more iodine
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
Which of the following is a feature of the disorder hereditary hemochromatosis?
It is the most common genetic disorder in the United States
Which of the following symptoms would ordinarily not be found in individuals with iron-deficiency anemia?
Diminished sense of smell
A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goiter. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
Fortify the salt with iodine
Which of the following represents the order of the stages of iron deficiency?
Iron stores decline - iron transport diminishes - hemoglobin synthesis falls
Common terms that describe the body's accumulation of excess iron include all of the following except
Which of the following minerals undergoes enteropancreatic circulation during normal metabolism?
What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
What is a free radical?
A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
4 times RDA
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?
They arise from normal metabolic reactions
Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?.
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?
Why are people with iron overload at increased risk for infections?
Iron-rich blood favors growth of bacteria
Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth?
Excessive fluoride in the water
Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine?
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against
the common cold.
Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency?
People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves