Anatomy Semester II Final

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Havermale

the release of the oocyte from ovary

ovulation

which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

seminal vesicles

Fertilization generally occurs in the ____

fallopian tubes

which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur

LH

Once fertilization has occurred, the activities of development begin. The first activity is ___

an increase in cell number

During the _______ stage of development, the human embryo implants in the uterine wall

blastula

In the human, this germ cell layer gives rise to the many organ systems, including the skeleton, skeletal muscles, wall of GI organs, urinary system and circulator system.

mesoderm

This cord attaches the embryo to the placenta.

Umbilical cord

What organs appear very early in development?

Brain and heart

The most numerous blood cells are ____?

red blood cells

This formed element is essential for blood clotting.

Platlets

The major pumping chambers of the heart are:

both ventricles

47. How many heart valves are there?

4

49. Which side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs?

Right

51. Cardiac muscle tissue

is striated. Like the skeletal muscle tissue

53. What is the name of the circuit that supplies blood to the brain, heart and gastrointestinal tract.

Systemic circulation

48. What is true about heart valves?

they enforce a one-way blood flow through the heart, operate passively, and separate the atria

50. The pulmonary trunk and arteries are color-coded ______ on models and in pictures, because they carry ____ blood:

red, oxygenated

52. These vessels carry oxygenated blood:

Aorta and pulmonary Veins

30. Implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine wall is complete by day ____ after ovulation?

14

32. The function of the cleavage is to:

increase the number of cells forming the blastocyst

34. The 3 primary germ layers develop during this stage of human fetal development:

gastrula

36. All exchanges between mother and embryo occur________:

across the chorionic membranes

38. The placenta is formed by:

maternal and fetal tissues

40. Development progresses________:

in rostral to caudal and proximal to distal directions

42.These are the most abundant leukocytes constituting 40-70% of all white blood cells:

neutrophils

44. The major function of the red blood cells (RBC) is to:

transport Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

46. The shapes and thickness of the walls of the right ventricle compared to the left are:

different; Left ventricle is egg-shaped (round in cross section) with thicker walls

Which hormone controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins:

GnRH

Development of male reproductive structures depends on which events?

Secretion of male hormones parentally and lasting in to the first few months after birth

17. The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through_____:

meiosis

15. The primary function of the uterus is to______:

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

16. Fertilization generally occurs in the _______:

fallopian tubes

7. Where the fetus develops and grows:

Uterus

8. The release of oocyte from ovary:

ovulation

9. External sac enclosing the testes:

scrotum

10. Erectile tissue in the male:

corpora cavernosa

11. Female homologue of the scrotum

labia majora

18. Spermiogenesis involves the _____:

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

19. Normally menstruation occurs when_____:

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

20. Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?

LH

72. Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest:

Arterioles

73. Site where exchanges of food are gases are made:

Capillaries

74. Site where blood pressure is the lowest:

Large veins

75. Site where the velocity of the blood flow is fastest:

Large arteries

76. Site where the velocity of blood flow is the slowest:

Capillaries

77. Site where the blood volume is greatest:

Large veins

78. Site where blood pressure is greatest:

Large arteries

79. Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance:

Arterioles

85. Olfactory receptor cells differ from all other receptors for special senses in that they____.:

C. are neurons

86. The olfactory epithelium_______:

A. contains olfactory receptor cells

87. Taste receptor cells are also called_____:

A. gustatory cells

88. Acids primarily activate receptors that respond to _____ tastes:

C. sour

89. Salty taste seems to be due to ______:

B. Na+ ions

90. Airborne chemicals are most likely to stimulate ______:

C. olfactory receptors

91. Like olfactory support cells, olfactory receptor cells______:

D. continually reproduce

106. Farsightedness is more properly called ______:

A. hyperopia

107. Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the:

B. eye

108. Motion Sickness seems to_______:

C. result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

109. The blind spot of the eye is where______.:

A. the optic nerve leaves the eye

110. Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ______.:

D. meniere's syndrome

111. Light passes through the following structures in which order?

C. cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

112. Auditory Area:

A. Temporal Lobe

113. Primary sensory cortex:

B. Parietal lobe

114. Somatic motor cortex:

C. Frontal lobe

115. Motor speech area:

C. Frontal lobe

116. Premotor area:

C. Occipital lobe

117. Visual area:

C. Occipital lobe

118. Taste (gustatory) area:

A. Insula

119. Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning:

B. Frontal lobe

120. This part of the peripheral nervous system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands:

B. autonomic nervous system

121. The surface of the cerebral hemispheres consists of ridges and grooves.The shallow grooves are called ______.:

A. sulci

122. The central sulcus of each cerebral hemisphere separates the ______.:

B. frontal and parietal lobes

123. In which lobe of the brain is the primary visual cortex located?:

B. occipital

124. The thalamus and the hypothalamus are structures found in the ______.:

B. diencephalon

125. This part of the brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord:

C. medulla oblongata

126. The corpus callosum_______.:

D. consists of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres

127. Three meninges cover the brain and spinal cord. The innermost one is called the ______.:

pia mater

128. The precentral gyrus _______.:

C. is a major motor area of the brain

129. Which of the choices below describes the ANS?

A. motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

130. Which of the following describes the nervous system integrative function?:

C. analyzes sensory information, stores info, and makes decisions

131. The part of the neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called an:

A. axon

132. An impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell via the _______.:

D. synapse

133. Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called ________:

B. ganglia

134. The term "central nervous system" refers to the _______:

D. brain and spinal cord

135. The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called an_______.:

B. neurotransmitter

136. The brain stem consists of the _______.:

A. midbrain, medulla, pons

137. The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the medulla _______.:

A. medulla

138. Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?:

C. longitudinal fissure

139. Which of the following best describes the cerebrum?:

C. executive suite

140. A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ______.:

D. sulcus

141. The hypothalamus _______.:

D. is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature

142. Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?

D. red blood cells

143. A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a ________.:

A. synergist

144. Which of the choices below is the major muscle for breathing?:

A. diaphragm

145. The actual contractile units of muscles extend from Z disc to Z disc. They are _______.:

D. sarcomeres

146. This contractile protein forms the thin filaments:

B. actin

147. The dark band of skeletal muscle results from the alignment of _______:

C. thick filaments

148. A neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ______:

B. motor unit

149. The function of the neuromuscular junction is to ______:

D. convey an impulse from the nervous system to skeletal muscle

150. These nervous system cells are highly specialized to transmit messages throughout the body:

B. neurons

151. These support cells are found in the central nervous system:

C. astrocytes

152. This part of the neuron generates and conducts action potentials:

B. axon

153. Muscles are named based on all the criteria below except ______.:

A. weight of the muscle

154. This muscle is used in smiling:

B. zygomaticus

155. This powerful muscle is the prime mover of arm extension:

C. latissimus dorsi

156. What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?

C. the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

157. What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?

A. an agonist

158. When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?

B. the muscle has two, three, or four origins respectively

159. Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body?

B. there are over 600 muscles in the body

160. During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to ______:

B. lactic acid

161. What is the most distinguishing characteristic of muscle tissue?

C. the ability to transform chemical energy into mechanical energy

162. Three discrete types of muscle fibers are identified on the basis of their size, speed, and endurance. Which of the following athletic endeavors best represents the use of red fibers?

D. a long relaxing swim

163. Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except ______:

C. secretion

164. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events for muscle contractions?

B. motor neuron action potential (I didn't write them all, but this is the first one)

165. The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to _______.:

C. enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems

166. What is the functional unit of skeletal muscle called?

C. sarcomere

167. The oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is_____:

B. myoglobin

168. The contractile units of skeletal muscles are ______.:

B. myofibrils

169. Rigor mortis occurs because _______.:

A. no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

170. During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

A. actin filaments

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