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Allusion:

a reference to a mythological, literary, or historical person, place, or thing.

Antithesis:

a direct juxtaposition of structurally parallel words, phrases, or clauses for the purpose of contrast.

Diction:

word choice

word choice

a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. It may be used for either serious or comic effect.

Verbal Irony:

when a speaker or narrator says one thing while meaning the
opposite.

Situational irony:

when a situation turns out differently from what one would
normally expect - though often the twist is oddly appropriate.

Dramatic irony:

when a character or speaker says or does something that has
different meanings from what he or she thinks it means, though the audience and other characters understand the full implications of the speech or action.

Metaphor:

a comparison of two unlike things not using "like" or "as."

Oxymoron:

a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression.

Paradox:

when the elements of a statement contradict each other. Although the statement may appear illogical, impossible, or absurd, it turns out to have a coherent meaning that reveals a hidden truth.

Personification:

a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics.

Point of view:

the perspective from which a narrative is told.

First person

uses the pronouns "I" and "me."

Second person

uses the pronoun "you"

Third person

uses the pronouns "he," "she," "it," "one,"

Repetition:

the deliberate use of any element of language more than once - sound, word, phrase, sentence, grammatical pattern, or rhythmical pattern.

Simile:

a comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words "like" or "as." It is a definitely stated comparison in which the author says one things is like another.

Style:

the writer's characteristic manner of employing language.

Synecdoche:

substituting a more inclusive term for a less inclusive one or vice versa

Metonymy:

similar to synecdoche, but in metonymy the name of one things is applied to another thing with which it is closely associated.

Syntax:

the arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence.

Tone:

the writer's or speaker's attitude toward a subject, character, or audience, and it is conveyed through the author's choice of words and detail. Tone can be serious, humorous, sarcastic, indignant, objective, etc.

Understatement:

the opposite of hyperbole. It is a kind of irony that deliberately
represents something as being much less than it really is.

Formal:

contains language that creates an elevated tone. It is free of slang, idioms, colloquialisms, and contractions. It often contains polysyllabic words, sophisticated syntax, and elegant word choice.

Neutral:

uses standard language and vocabulary without elaborate words and may include contractions.

Informal:

the language of everyday use. It is relaxed and conversational.
It often includes common and simple words, idioms, slang, jargon, and contractions.

Slang:

refers to a group of recently coined words often used in informal
situations. Slang words often come and go quickly, passing in and out of usage within months or years.

Colloquial expressions:

nonstandard, often regional, ways of using
language appropriate to informal or conversational speech and writing.

Jargon:

words and expressions characteristic of a particular trade,
profession, or pursuit.

Dialect:

a nonstandard subgroup of a language with its own vocabulary
and grammatical features. Writers often use regional dialects or dialects that reveal a person's economic or social class.

Concrete diction:

specific words that describe physical qualities or
conditions.

Abstract diction:

refers to language that denotes ideas, emotions,
conditions, or concepts that are intangible.

Denotation:

the exact, literal definition of a word independent of any
emotional association or secondary meaning.

Connotation:

the implicit rather than explicit meaning of a word; consists
of the suggestions, associations, and emotional overtones attached to a word.

Declarative:

a sentence that makes a statement.

Imperative:

a sentence that gives a command.

Interrogative:

a sentence that asks a question

Exclamatory:

a sentence that provides emphasis or expresses strong
emotion.

Simple sentence:

contains one independent clause

Compound sentence:

contains two independent clauses joined by a
coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon.

Complex sentence:

contains and independent clause and one or more
subordinate clauses

Compound-complex sentence:

contains two or more independent clauses
and one or more subordinate clauses.

Cumulative sentence:

makes complete sense if brought to a close before
the actual ending. The sentence could end before the modifying phrases without losing its coherence.

Periodic sentence:

makes sense fully only when the end of the sentence is
reached.

Inversion:

constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the
subject. This is a device in which typical sentence patterns are reversed to create an emphatic or rhythmic effect.

Juxtaposition:

a device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or
phrases are placed next to one another, often creating an effect of surprise and wit.

Parallel structure (parallelism):

a grammatical or structural similarity
between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased.

Repetition:

a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and to create emphasis.

Rhetorical question:

a question that requires no answer. It is used to draw
attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement.

Anaphora:

the repetition of the same word or group of words at the
beginning of successive clauses.

Asyndeton:

deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related
clauses.

Chiasmus/antimetabole:

a sentence strategy in which the arrangement of
ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first.

Polysyndeton:

the deliberate use of many conjunctions for special
emphasis - to highlight quantity or mass of detail or to creat a flowing, continuous sentence pattern.

Zeugma:

the use of a verb that has two different meanings with objects
that complement both meanings.

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