helminth GI tract diseases

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some common helminth infections of the human GI tract

cycle A

helminth develops in intestine; egg released in feces; egg ingested by new host

cycle B

helminth matures in intestine; eggs released with feces; larvae hatch and develop in environment; larvae penetrate new hosts skin

Cycle C

helminth matures in human intestines; egg released into environment; eggs eaten by grazing animals; larval form encyst in animals tissue; human eats infected meat

Cycle D

eggs are released from human; humans are infected through ingestion or direct penetration by larval phase

Trichuris trichiura

cycle A, humans only host, cause hemorrhaging of bowel, 3000-5000 eggs laid a day, whipworm

Enterobius vermicularis

cycle A, common in children of temperate zones, sticky eggs and anal itching lead to self inoculation and spreading, pinworm

Taenia solium

Cycle c, where humans and pigs in close proximity, 16' long, few symptoms, pork tapeworm


Trichuris trichiura, Cycle A


Enterobius vermicularis, Cycle A

pork tapeworm

Taenia solium, Cycle C

helminth migratory symptoms

arise when helminth larvae penetrate the intestines and enter the lymphatic or circulatory system, exit into the glottis and are swallowed, eosinophilia common


cycle A, migratory rout marked by inflammatory symptoms, intestinal roundworm

Strongyloides stercoralis

cycle B, migratory, can complete life cycle both in and out of body, threadworm

Trichinella spp.

cycle C, whole lifecycle in host, migratory cycle ends in skeletal muscles


Cycle D, egg uses snail as intermediate host, penetrate through human hair follicles when in contaminated water, monogamous when mated, antigen cloaking, causes liver disease

intestinal roundworm



Strongyloides stercoralis


causes liver disease

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