Testing Material #5

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The insanity plea is a legal defense for behavior based on evidence of

-a psychological disorder.
-provocation.
-self-defense.
-harm to self or others.

a psychological disorder.

Hippocrates proposed that psychological disorders might

-signify divine possession.
-signify demonic possession.
-be cured by exorcism.
-be caused by a brain abnormality.

be caused by a brain abnormality.

The news just reported that a hurricane is headed toward your home. You feel anxious and can't decide what to do first to prepare. This response is indicative of

-unusual behavior.
-normal behavior.
-abnormal behavior.
-faulty behavior.

normal behavior.

You are suddenly overcome with fear and feel like you are having a heart attack because of the chest pains, dizziness, and weakness. After several minutes the episode passes, but you experience several unexpected reoccurrences over the next few months. This indicates

-normal behavior.
-ideas of persecution.
-unusual behavior that is likely abnormal.
-hallucinations.

unusual behavior that is likely abnormal.

A man spends several hours in front of his mirror each morning in an effort to put every hair on his head in its exact place before leaving for work. This concern for trivial details suggests

-dangerous behavior.
-unusual behavior.
-faulty perceptions.
-delusional beliefs.

unusual behavior.

A woman has been brought to the emergency room because she says that she has been seeing green ooze running down the walls of her bedroom. She is demonstrating

-dangerous behavior.
-normal behavior.
-faulty perceptions.
-none of the above.

faulty perceptions.

A man preparing for his professional licensing examination becomes agitated and threatens to kill himself if he doesn't pass the exam on the first try. He is subsequently admitted for a psychiatric examination, and the doctor learns that the young man has neglected everything because he is terrified of failing his examination. The doctor most likely believes that the man exhibits __________ behavior.

-eccentric
-odd
-self-defeating
-normal

self-defeating

The DSM-IV classification system contains information about

-diseases.
-illnesses.
-psychological disorders.
-medical conditions.

psychological disorders.

The DSM-IV groups disorders on the basis of

-observable symptoms.
-assumptions about their causes.
-the type of personality associated with each.
-the theoretical orientation of their prescribed treatments.

observable symptoms.

__________ is among a group of mental health professionals who believe that the categories described in the DSM should not be classified as "disorders" because mental health issues are not "sicknesses."

-Thomas Szasz
-Sigmund Freud
-Hippocrates
-Erik Erikson

Thomas Szasz

Claustrophobia is described as a fear of

-flying.
-spiders and snakes.
-aliens.
-enclosed spaces.

enclosed spaces.

A man cancels an important business trip to the mountains because he cannot control his fear of heights. He goes to a doctor to discuss the problem. What diagnosis is the doctor likely to consider?

-agoraphobia
-acrophobia
-social phobia
-claustrophobia

acrophobia

A woman has had a series of panic attacks and lives in fear of future attacks. In addition, she is now afraid to leave her home because she is afraid of having an attack in public. She discusses the problem with her doctor. What diagnosis is most likely?

-panic attack with anxiety
-panic disorder with agoraphobia
-panic attack with fears of persecution
-panic disorder with social phobia

panic disorder with agoraphobia

The central feature of a generalized anxiety disorder is that the anxiety is


-attached to a specific object or event.
-persistent.
-characterized by intermittent attacks.
-based on childhood trauma.

persistent.

It is believed that __________ tend to reduce the anxiety connected with obsessions.

-compulsions
-phobias
-stressors
-physical symptoms

compulsions

The psychodynamic perspective views the obsessive compulsive disorder as connected to a/n

-Oedipus complex.
-oral fixation.
-anal fixation.
-all of the above.

anal fixation.

Sheryl's mom always screamed whenever she saw a spider. Sheryl now has the same reaction to spiders. According to __________ theorist, Sheryl acquired the behavior pattern by watching her mom.

-behavioral
-social cognitive
-humanistic
-psychodynamic

social cognitive

Twin studies and adoption studies are methods to discover the role of __________ factors in the development of psychological disorders.

-cognitive
-behavioral
-psychodynamic
-biological

biological

Preston experienced times when he couldn't remember what he had done. Sometimes he found things in the house that weren't his and mail with someone else's name on it. Preston seems to be experiencing

-dissociative amnesia.
-dissociative fugue.
-dissociative identity disorder.
-depersonalization disorder.

dissociative identity disorder.

Amnesia is frequently associated with __________ disorders.

-dissociative
-somatoform
-anxiety
-mood

dissociative

Skepticism has surrounded the dissociative disorders because

-there has been a great increase in the number of cases after media coverage of a client's story.
-therapists may actually encourage the client's report of symptoms associated with this type of disorder.
-client's are sometimes ambivalent regarding the truth in their stories.
-all of the above.

- there has been a great increase in the number of cases after media coverage of a client's story.

- therapists may actually encourage the client's report of symptoms associated with this type of disorder.

- client's are sometimes ambivalent regarding the truth in their stories.

__________ involves a claim of psychological disability in

-The insanity plea
-Malingering
-Multiple personality
-A fugue

Malingering

Somatoform disorders involve

-the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
-a physical dysfunction.
-repressed memories.
-the transformation of anger into a physical illness.

the conversion of anxiety into a physical form.

Somatoform disorders are often

-exhibited by people who are faking symptoms to avoid responsibility.
-an unconscious attempt to gain attention or avoid anxiety provoking situations.
-found to be physically based.
-exaggerated by education.

an unconscious attempt to gain attention or avoid anxiety provoking situations.

Individuals who are least likely to exhibit conversion disorders include

-soldiers in combat.
-fighter pilots.
-concentration camp prisoners.
-farmers.

farmers.

People diagnosed with __________ insist that they are suffering from a serious disease or medical condition. They are known to seek help from many doctors, and personal relationships suffer as they expect consideration for their supposed illness.

-hypochondriasis
-pain disorder
-conversion disorder
-malingering

hypochondriasis

__________ thinking is a factor in both depression and major depression.

-Grandiose
-Suicidal
-Delusional
-Psychotic

Suicidal

The symptoms of rapid or "pressured" speech, the tendency to switch from topic to topic, and an inability to listen to the comments of others are often observed in patients with bipolar disorder. These symptoms are often referred to as

-argumentative.
-overly expressive.
-flight of ideas.
-distractibility.

flight of ideas.

Vulnerability to depression has been noted among

-women.
-criminals.
-entertainers.
-successful athletes.

women.

Factors that are thought to contribute to depression in women include all of the following except

-hormonal changes during adolescence.
-childbirth.
-the menstrual cycle.
-marriage.

marriage.

Pearl constantly blames herself for problems in her marriage. She believes she has a personality flaw and no matter what she will always have problems in relationships. Pearl will likely exhibit

-mania.
-depression.
-delusions.
-phobias.

depression.

Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.

-psychodynamic
-cognitive
-social
-behavioral

cognitive

Suicide is often associated with which of the following?

-insanity.
-psychosis.
-loss of contact with reality.
-none of the above.

none of the above.

Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with

-memory, attention, thinking, and communication.
-rigid and over controlled thinking.
-an inability to be alone.
-feeling frustrated because victims feel they are so different from other people.

memory, attention, thinking, and communication.

Your patient confides that the FBI and the CIA are "out to get me." Your patient has __________ delusions.

-grandiose
-catatonic
-disorganized
-persecutory

persecutory

While standing on a bus, a man overhears a discussion about a person who is about to be terminated from his job. The man decides that the people on the bus are talking about him and that he has been targeted for termination. The man demonstrates

-delusions of grandeur.
-delusions of reference.
-disorganized delusions.
-dangerous delusions.

delusions of reference.

The behavior of some people with schizophrenia is extremely agitated. In other cases, one might observe the patient to be slow and without emotional expression, that is, the patient is


-in a stupor.
-hallucinating.
-delusional.
-paranoid.

in a stupor.

Systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with

-paranoid schizophrenia.
-delusional disorder.
-catatonic schizophrenia.
-disorganized schizophrenia.

paranoid schizophrenia.

Georgina's speech is very confusing and rarely makes sense. She makes funny faces and is often heard giggling. Georgina exhibits __________ schizophrenia.

-paranoid
-catatonic
-disorganized
-delusional

disorganized

Waxy flexibility is a feature of __________ schizophrenia.

-paranoid
-disorganized
-catatonic
-undifferentiated

catatonic

Floyd's therapist believes that his hallucinations and delusions are more rewarding to Floyd than social interactions. Floyd's therapist endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.

-psychodynamic
-learning
-cognitive
-sociocultural

learning

Psychodynamic theory suggests that schizophrenia is the result of

-regression caused by inner conflict.
-an unresolved Oedipal conflict.
-catharsis.
-bad parenting.

regression caused by inner conflict.

Evaluation of the role of factors such as poverty, crowding, and discrimination in the onset of schizophrenia is pursued by researchers with a(n) __________ view of

-existential
-psychodynamic
-cognitive
-sociocultural

sociocultural

Anna's doctor is looking at the activity in her prefrontal cortex and the size of her ventricles to determine possible causes of her schizophrenia. Anna's doctor endorses the __________ view of schizophrenia.

-psychodynamic
-learning
-biological
-cognitive

biological

It appears that many people with schizophrenia have undergone a variety of birth and pregnancy complications. These findings suggest that atypical __________ may be

-mothering
-genes
-central nervous system development
-fertilization

central nervous system development

According to the dopamine theory of schizophrenia, all of the following are true except that there is

-an overproduction of dopamine.
-an overuse of dopamine.
-increased amounts of dopamine at the synapses.
-a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia.

an overproduction of dopamine.

An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is

-dopamine.
-estrogen.
-acetylcholine.
-adrenaline.

dopamine.

Psychotherapy treats

-only biologically based disorders.
-patients using consistent methods no matter how the therapist was trained.
-psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth issues.
-only those clinical syndromes described in the DSM-IV.

psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth issues.

When society explained mental illness as demonic possession or evil, the treatments for psychological disorders were

-more humane.
-forgiving.
-nonexistent.
-mostly punitive.

mostly punitive.

Carrie wants to increase her self-esteem and become the best spouse she can be. Which approach is likely to help Carrie be successful?

-medication
-psychotherapy
-visiting a psychic
-none of the above

psychotherapy

The function of early asylums was to

-provide a place to store the mentally ill.
-treat individuals with psychological disorders.
-spiritually cleanse those with abnormal behavior.
-house new slaves.

provide a place to store the mentally ill.

A client reclines as they talk about whatever comes to mind. The therapist listens and notices relationships or time periods that the client avoids talking about. This is the __________ therapeutic method.

-psychoanalysis
-systematic desensitization
-client-centered
-rational emotive

psychoanalysis

You are a modern psychodynamic therapist. You will be more directive than a traditional psychoanalyst, and you will focus on the __________ more than the id.

-ego
-latent content
-the unconscious
-superego

ego

Modern psychoanalysis is to __________ as Freudian psychoanalysis is to __________.

-rational; irrational
-unconscious; conscious
-nondirective; directive
-id; ego

rational; irrational

While psychodynamic approaches focus on the unconscious level of experience, the humanistic-existential perspective focuses on the __________ level of experience.

-interpersonal
-conscious, subjective
-objective, observable
-irrational

conscious, subjective

__________ originated client-centered therapy.

-Erik Erikson
-Alfred Adler
-Fritz Perls
-Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers

Both client-centered and Gestalt therapy aim to help clients

-integrate conflicting parts of their personalities.
-gain access to repressed material in the unconscious.
-experience catharsis.
-overcome pessimism.

integrate conflicting parts of their personalities.

Psychodynamic, client-centered, and Gestalt therapies all view psychological disorders as the result of

-past trauma.
-internal conflict.
-reinforcement history.
-low self-esteem.

internal conflict.

A recent divorcee is struggling in the area of communication skills. The __________ therapist sets up a program to reinforce the client's acquisition of social skills.

-client-centered
-psychodynamic
-cognitive
-behavior

behavior

Behavior therapists argue that the effectiveness of therapy depends upon specific

-ego defenses.
-learning-based procedures.
-cathartic experiences.
-directive dialogs.

learning-based procedures.

Behavior therapists help clients to become aware of the __________ in which maladaptive behavior occurs.

-unconscious
-relationships
-circumstances
-guilt reactions

circumstances

One of the most successful techniques for overcoming phobias is

-aversive conditioning.
-token economies.
-systematic desensitization.
-classical conditioning.

systematic desensitization.

Your client suffers with claustrophobia and can't get on the elevator at their place of employment. The therapist helps them construct an approach hierarchy to work toward riding the elevator. The client is trained in relaxation before the approach hierarchy is used. This method is indicative of

-modeling.
-systematic desensitization.
-aversive conditioning.
-flooding.

systematic desensitization.

Dr. Fry conducts research on the attitudes of youth and dating in schools. He is a psychologist in the area of __________.

-school social director
-social psychology
-cultural psychology
-none of the above

social psychology

Social psychology involves the study of all of the following except

-beliefs.
-conformity.
-groups
-intelligence.

intelligence.

Your friend was recently killed by a drunk driver. Students from an organization against drunk drivers ask you to sign their petition and donate to their cause. You are more than happy to comply because of your friend's recent demise. This demonstrates how the __________ of your attitude influences your behavior.

-accessibility
-specificity
-universality
-conformity

accessibility

Which factor influences the probability that we can predict people's behavior from attitudes?

-strength of attitude
-vested interest
-health status
-a and b only

-strength of attitude
-vested interest

In __________ terms, prejudice is connected with social and economic difficulties.

-cognitive
-emotional
-social conflict
-none of the above

social conflict

In __________ terms, prejudice is connected with attitudinal differences.

-cognitive
-dissimilarity
-behavioral
-all of the above

dissimilarity

__________ ran a series of experiments to find out how many people would resist immoral requests made by authority figures.

-Stanley Milgram
-Solomon Asch
-Leon Festinger
-George Steinbrenner

Stanley Milgram

Ihor has been in the army for almost two years. He has gone through boot camp, learned drill, and now is able to do much automatically and without hesitation when commanded to do so. He is likely to risk his life when ordered to. This process is a good example of __________ applied to obedience.

-social comparison
-the foot-in-the-door technique
-the accessibility of values
-buffers

the foot-in-the-door technique

Vasily participated in a replication of Milgram's original obedience experiment. Like the other "teachers" in the Milgram experiments, as Vasily became more emotionally aroused, his emotions probably interfered with clear thinking. When this happened, the __________ factor tended to increase the likelihood of obedience.

-buffer
-perception of legitimate authority
-lack of social comparison
-inaccessibility of values

inaccessibility of values

Social norms are

-the tendency to return feelings and attitudes that are expressed about us by others.
-the explicit and implicit expectations concerning social behavior.
-clearly stated forms of peer pressure.
-all of the above.

the explicit and implicit expectations concerning social behavior.

In the Solomon Asch study, the only real subject was always given the __________ seat (out of eight).

-first
-second
-seventh
-eighth

seventh

A member of a jury disagrees with the other members. A key factor in encouraging this individual to "stick to his guns" in the face of majority opinion is

-finding just one other person who supports his minority opinion.
-finding a group whose size is greater than 18 members.
-the desire to be liked by other members of the group.
-none of the above.

finding just one other person who supports his minority opinion.

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