Gather Food for immediate consumption, Move frequently between resource locations.
A place of living. Foragers and Collectors use.
Emphasis is on storage, critical resources are located in widely pispersed places and are available for short periods of time. Groups target particular resources.
Post Pleistocene climate changes
Increase in the World Sea Levels, Warmer and Wetter,
Post Pleistocene faunal changes
Different animal species had different behaviors.
Animals in smaller groups in forest - not in herds.
More Marine Food.
Hunter-gatherer insurance policy
Stay with Kin and Fictive Kin, Move!, Knowledge, Move!, Forage Shelter, Expand Diet Breadth, Move!
Limited Population movement (presence of neighbors or geographic), Resources abundant and Predictable, Movement towards the expulitation of small and numerous resources.
Small bladelets struck off prepared pyramidal cores, retouching into finished tools.
classic mesolithic tool, blade pieces retouched into specific forms, classifiable into styles
Developments in Mesolithic Societhy
Population Growth, larger social groups, more contact between groups, Cemeteries, Indications of group identity, the first indications of some richer graves, evidence for injuries inflicted by people.
Yorkshire, Vale of Pickering.
Organic Materials well preserved in wetland. One of the best known Mesolithic Settlements. There have been a range of theories about the nature of the site. Clark originally thought it was a winter base camp, legge and rowley-conwy say also spring/summer camp.
The transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another, such as the transition from a forest to a grassland
Change in genetic complement of plant or animal; Depends on plasticity, generation length, degree of manipulation.
Husbandry, Cultivation, harvest, Storage
Based on a notion of HG as essentially primitive, unable to control production of food supply and wholly dependent on Nature. Therefore HGs must discover or invent agriculture.
Man the Hunter Symposium
A result of post WWII ethnographic work among HG, an ecological view-adaptation and homeostasis emphasized.
Peake and Fleure Intellegence Hypothesis
When people are smart enough, they will clearly see advantages to doing agriculture and start doing it...If they don't practice agriculture, clearly, they are stupid. Also proposed that the presence of a wide range of wild relatives was one of the prerequisites for a center of agricultural origin. Proposed that limits to migration provided a motivation to agricultural intensification. This could be achieved by topography or territoriality, which would prevent populations from migrating to other areas to obtain supplementary or alterative sources of food.
Childe Oasis Hypothesis
Neolithic Revolution in the Near East. Increasingly dry conditions at the end of the Pleistocene forced people to congregate in river valleys where there were abundant plants and animals.A new symbiotic relationship between people, plants, and animals developed agriculture.
Braidwood Settling-in Hypothesis
End of the Pleistocene changes in the environment meant people living in "nuclear zones" surrounded by areas rich in wild grasses. Experimentation with wild grasses - and ultimately the development of domesticated forms. People's knowledge of resources on which they depend eventually, and inevitably leads to domestication
Binford equilibrium Hypothesis
Agriculture arrives only when carrying capacity is approached because of relative change in environment or in population density. HG strategies provide mechanisms for keeping population and K in check, but.... With post-Pleistocene sea level raise and demise of megafauna, effective HG populations because carrying capacity (K) decreases...setting stage for agriculture to be successful. Optimal zones with natural stands of wheat experienced population increase and recipient areas received the emigrant overflow. Recipient areas in permanent disequilibrium = domestication.This results in domestication as plants moved outside their natural habitats (where extra effort is needed for these non-local species to survive)
Cohen Saturated World Hypothesis
Hunter-gatherers saturated the world by 10 KBP and exhausted all possible strategies for increasing food supply (e.g. diet breadth, tech...) At the end of the Pleistocene Population would have been larger than at any time before. Some localized densities may have been relatively high ( i.e. areas of concentrated population) Because of this "Food Crisis" the only alternative was to adopt labor intensive means of tending plant and animal species
Kennedy and Watson Woman the Innovator Hypothesis
In traditional societies, women are the plant gatherers, have intimate knowledge of botany Woman manipulate plants, thereby domesticating them (Reaction to androcentric bias that women are passive creatures, incapable of acting as agents of change
Hayden Prestige Feasting Hypothesis
device of ambitious individuals to control labor and loyalties. public displays of political prowess. Should see domestication occur in complex HG societies first. North America: first items domesticated are prestige items (chiles, gourds, squash, avocado, hemp, mint, tobacco) rather than food staples. In Near East, wheat/barley domesticated for making beer; beer-based competitive feasts? Other ethnographic cases, domesticates not as productive as wild foods
used of organisms (especially of different species) living together but not necessarily in a relationship beneficial to each
The number of organisms a given region or habitat can support without degrading the environment.
Amount of different types of animals in a prey's diet.
Rindos Co-evolutionary Theory
Human behavior alters local flora placing certain morphological traits of plant species at a competitive advantage (how effective are plants at attracting human consumers as dispersal agents). Domestication is an interaction between humans and plants, the product of a long co-evolution, no intention required. Under this view squirrels are one of the oak tree's mechanisms for dispersing acorns. Domestication by humans works in much the same way. People gain from plants and animals, plants and animals gain from human efforts
Area of attachment between seeds and other seeds or between seeds and other parts of a plant. A brittle rachis is an adaptive feature under natural conditions but, since it makes harvesting more difficult, is selected against humans through artificial selection.
Obstacles to Domestication
A diet not easily supplied by humans, slow growth rate and long birth spacing, nasty disposition, reluctance to breed in captivity, lack of follow-the-leader dominance hierarchies, tendency to panic in enclosures or when faced with predators, many species passed 5 of these 6 tests but were still not domesticated, because they failed a 6th test.
The "New Stone Age." In the Past ______ was defined on the basis of the appearance of ground stone as opposed to chipped stone tools. Today, _______ refers to the period after 12,000 years ago when food producing through the domestication of plants and animals replaced foraging as the dominant mode of subsistence.
Round vs rectangular houses (sedentism)
A pattern of settlement in which a community of people tends to remain in one place over the course of a year or years. A ______ settlement pattern differs from nomadism in which a community may move seasonally, following the availability.
Occupied 12 times after 6000 BC, a town of 13 ha with many small houses of sun dried brick. Known for murals featuring cattle motifs, erupting volcanoes, "Mother Goddess" Figure, Gimbutas: Early peaceful matriarchies later supplanted by warlike patriarchies.
5,000 - 4,000 BC
8,000 - 5,000 BC
Site surrounded by a stone wall and there is a 8m high tower. Dead buried under the floor of the houses; little to distinguished are burial from another.
From Nearby extinct volcanoes, traded throughout near east, trace elements studies show distance-decay: 80% of chipped stone within 200 km of obsidian sources is obsidian, outside supply zone lesser amounts found.
Authority, work, and decision making organized not only by household and family but also by a larger social group.
Reasons for the emergence of social complexity
Complexity is just great? Need to increase agriculture Outlook, External Threat, Resource Pooling, Status/Wealth.
Reservoirs, granaries, Organized trade, public monuments, defense, requires leadership.
Regional figure often found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. Occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to heirs.
Status differences within population; with very few people found in higher ranks. Population size: 100s - 1000
With greater population, leadership can gain power. Kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure. Relations among villages as well as among individuals are unequal, with smaller villages under the authority of leaders in larger villages.
Class Societies, often rigidly stratified into social levels. The ruling class controls the populace not by consensus by by coercion and force. The rulers in a state society have the power to levy and collect taxes, to establish and enforce laws, and to conscript people to do the work of the state.
Achieved vs Ascribed Status
One is accomplished throughout your entire life, the other implies the exsistence of different classes in society (i.e. Born with it)
One Site large, Other small (serve as satellites)
Large Public buildings implies a high level of central control to organize and support the work force. Reflects economic, social, and political differentiation. Only certain groups in society have access to see or enter some monumental architecture(Legitimize power). Only certain groups in society can organize its construction (and organize the message)
That food that can be produced beyond the needs of the producer and his or her family. A __________ us a necessary concomitant of civilization, freeing entire classes of people from the subsistence quest, and allowing for the existence of full-time rulers, soldiers, merchants, and priests.
Pattern of social integration in which individuals are placed into a hierarchy of social levels. The presence of a hierarchy of differences in status and wealth in society.
Certain individuals can devote all their time to perfecting skills in sophisticated and time-consuming specialties, such as technology, engineering, the arts, and crafts.
Record Keeping (language)
The elite could keep track of food surpluses and labor and, in essence, dictate history by recording it in a manner beneficial to them. Any symbolic system, usually but not always involving some form of writing, for keeping track of economic transactions, historical events, religious rules, etc. ______________ is a fundamental need in complex civilizations.
Wittfogel's Hydraulic Bureaucracy
Agricultural limiting factors: soil conditions, temperature and availability of water. Of these, water is the easiest for people to control. Ag fosters population growth. Growth spurred greater production and the need for increased productivity and expansion of acreage used for farming. Water Manipulation (canals, etc.) made this possible. Construction, operation, maintenance and expansion of these systems required new social and political institutions. Managerial class to oversee labor, specialists to design irrigation systems. Irrigation leads to wealth and status differential. Organizational apparatus could also be used to construct defenses, great houses, public architecture
Mesopotamian system of impressing symbolic notation onto wet clay by using a marked cylinder
Early form of written records in Mesopotamia, involving the impression of standardized symbols on wet clay. Dating to close to 6,000 years ago, ______ is the earliest writing in the world.
Characteristics of Early civilizations
Food Surplus, Large, Dense Populations. Social Stratification, A formal Government, Labor Specialization, Record Keeping, Monumental Works.
Propose that complex civilizations evolved as a way to reduce, control, and mediate conflict among people living in a society.
Civilization evolves from the need for increasingly complex integrative mechanisms in increasingly complex situations. Due to the need to mobilize large and diverse populations to work together for the good of society, social institutions developed, to expedite and at the same time justify, rationalize, codify, legitimize, and sanctify these activities. While only a few are on top, the majority reap the benefits of the social system. Trappings of the elite are a price paid for the benefits accrued by everyone as a result of the key social roles played by the elite
nonelective government officials
Defined a true "government" as a "specialized decision-making organization with a monopoly of force, and with the power to draft for work, levy, and collect taxes, and decree and enforce laws."
Carneiro's Circumscriptions Hypothesis
Three conditions: Warfare, Population growth and Environmental circumscription (geographically or socially restricted). Population increases in fertile areas, expanding to margins(but limits to expansion). Agricultural intensification to relieve carrying capacity stress (creates organization apparatus)....but Once expansion and intensification become too difficult, one group takes land occupied by others.
Captured populations absorbed into system slaves or serfs, i.e., Social and Political institutions evolve to incorporate these people (who have nowhere else to go). Symbols and institutions created to legitimize control of the victors over the vanquished.
Hierarchies as Information Processors (Gregory Johnson)
Scalar stress - too many senders and receivers information congestion; delayed, bad decisions. Scalar stress relieved by development of hierarchies.
Roman Rough Cilicia
Some Roman military presence signaled by centurion tomb, Roman motifs on tombs; coin may indicate "Veteran's Colony" here Roman hegemony and wealth: baths; temples to Emperor cult Deforestation during Roman times? We see transition in pollen with decrease in cedar pollen, suggesting timber harvest. Need better dating
World Systems Theory
Articulated by historian Immanuel Wallerstein in 1970-1980s. Explain our current circumstances, co-dependent relationship capital-rich West and labor-rich Third World. For him, originated in 15th century mercantile world, early capitalism, and the Western European colonization of world. Has been used with varying success to investigate interactions in early civilizations
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
Cilicians use timber, skilled craftspersons, and other amenities to negotiate favorable situation with Rome (may have maintained earlier social structures)
Regal Ritual Sites
Term used by archaeologist David Webster (2002) to describe Maya population centers. These centers were the home of Maya nobility and served also as the central location for Maya Religion.
an ancient upright stone slab bearing markings
books made out of fig tree bark used by the Mayans
Technology-rich, (hegemony) Exploits Periphery by extracting labor and resources, adding value to goods (comodification), returning them to Periphery (exchange can also be immaterial)
Labor-rich. Resource-rich. Exploited by Core. Sometimes consumes products, ideas from the core
Columns on which images or written messages have been inscribed. The maya of Mesoamerican left a large number of stelae.
The screenfold books of the Maya. Written in their hieroglyphic language, the vast majority of the _______ were collected and destroyed by the Spanish in A.D. 1562. Only 4 survived.
Record keeping system of the Inca in which series of knotted strings were used as mnemonic devices to help record keepers remember information.