APUSH Ch 13 (Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848)

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Stephen F. Austin

known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)

Texas Revolution

War between Texas settlers and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas

The Alamo

Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Teas prisoners.

Goliad Massacre

This is when 400 Texan volunteers were massacred after surrendering

Battle of San Jacinto

(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas

William Henry Harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

John Tyler

elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.

Philadelphia Bible Riots

In the spring and summer of 1844, there were weeks of tension as the Philadelphia school board excused Catholic students from reading the Protestant Bible, but would not let them read the Catholic edition. There was a rampage of house, church, and seminary burnings and a Protestant boy was killed.

James K. Polk

president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.

Slidell mission

This was a last ditch attempt to gain California for America. Polk sent Slidell to offer a maximum of $25 million for it, but it was rejected by the Mexicans. This prompted Polk to provoke war with the Mexicans.

John C. Fremont

an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.

Bear Flag Republic

aka the California republic; the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14, 1846, in the town of Sonoma against the authorities of the Mexican province of California; the Republic lasted less than a month. The republic eventually became the present-day state of California.

Tariff of 1846

Lowered Tariff to 25%, produced boom times and heavy imports

Colonel Stephen Kearny

This American Army general was a main force in the conquest of California; he later succeeded John C. Fremont as California's Military Governor.

Wilmot Proviso

proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery

Battle of Buena Vista

Zachery Taylor defeated the Mexicans when fighting for the Rio Grande River

Winfield Scott

United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)

Lewis Cass

He was nominated as President after Polk and he evolved a doctrine of popular sovereignty. He argued that slavery should be kept out of Congress and left to the people.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

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