List functions of endocrine system.
Help regulate body's metabolic processes. Aids in membrane transport. Regulates water and electrolyte balance. Controls reproduction and development.
Where are endocrine glands located?
Brain, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis.
List the specific endocrine glands.
Pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, thyroid, thymus, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, placenta, testes, duodenum and small intestine.
What gives rise to development of endocrine system in fetal development?
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
Single organ composed of 2 distinct tissue types that secrete different hormones under different controls.
What are the names fo the two portions of the pituitary?
Anterior and posterior
The anterior region of the pituitary gland is also called what?
The posterior region of the pituitary gland is also called what?
During fetal development, where specifically does the anterior portion of pituitary come from?
ectoderm of oral cavity
During fetal development, where specifically does the posterior portion of the pituitary come from?
neuroectoderm of brain
During fetal development, where specifically does the thyroid come from?
Endoderm on floor of pharynx
During fetal development, where specifically does the pancreas come from?
Endoderm of foregut
During fetal development, where specifically does the adrenal medulla come from?
During fetal development, where specifically do the adrenal cortex and the gonads come from?
What are glands whose secretions are transported without ducts called?
Both endocrine and exocrine glands arise from what type of lining?
Endocrine cells exhibit some degree of specialization which correlates to what?
Composition of the hormones they secrete
What term is used for glands that secrete hormones directly into bloodstream?
Potent substances secreted by a cell that have a regulatory or metabolic effect on another cell or tissue.
The cells affected by hormones are called what?
Hormones are grouped in what 2 categories?
Steroids and non-steroids
What type of cells secrete steroids?
How do steroids enter cells?
By diffusion, and then combine with cytoplasmic receptor protein.
What activates certain genes, which brings about synthesis of enzymes that control metabolic processes or aid in membrane transport.
Steroid hormone action model is also called what?
gene activation model
Non-steroids are secreted by what type of glands?
ectodermal and mesodermal
What enzyme is activated when non-steroids bind with specific receptors in target cell plasma membrane?
What does adenyl cyclase convert ATP into?
cAMP, which is formed by adenyl cyclase converting ATP, is also called what?
cAMP activates protein kinases which brings about changes in cells. This is called what?
second messenger model
What 3 protein kinases are activated by cAMP?
Amines, peptides, and proteins
Amines are modified amino acids of epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced by what specific area of the adrenal gland?
Short chains of amino acids, antidiuretic hormone , oxytocin, and some hormones of hypothalamus are called what?
Parathyroid hormone, growth hormones, and other hormones of anterior pituitary are what?
When water soluble hormones do not cross the cell membrane, how do they cause effects within the cell?
use second messengers
Some hormones such as prostaglandin are made up of lipids of fatty acids and what type of ring?
5 carbon ring
Potent hormone-like effects produced by a wide variety of cells are caused by what type of hormones?
non-steroid hormones such as prostaglandins
Non-steroid hormones such as prostaglandins appear to be modulators of hormone action by regulating formation of what?
Inflammation response, contraction of uterus and intestine, and relaxation of lungs and blood vessels are caused by what type of hormone?
What must be given with the drug RU 486 in order to complete abortion process using this drug?
Secretion of all but one hormone is under what kind of feedback control?
Some hormones are released in response to what type of impulses?
List 2 gonadotropins.
FSH and LH
Which endocrine gland is called the "master" or "chief" gland?
Where specifically is the pituitary gland located?
In fossa in sphenoid bone sella turcica
How is the pituitary gland attached to the hypothalamus?
by the infundibulum
The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also called what?
The anterior lobe of pituitary gland is derived from where specifically during embryo development?
oral ectoderm of oral cavity of embryo
What is the oral ectoderm of oral cavity of empbryo that forms anterior lobe of pituitary also called?
What controls the secretions from the ant. pituitary?
hormones from the hypothalamus
What are the 3 secondary divisions of the anterior pituitary gland?
Pars distalis, pars intermedia, and the pars tuberalis
What division composes nearly 70% of the entire pituitary gland?
What specific region of the anterior region of the pituitary gland has somatroph cells that sythesize growth hormone somatotropin?
Mammotroph cells that produce lactogenic horme prolactin are found in what specific region of the pituitary?
pars distalis of anterior pituitary gland
What specific region of the ant. pituitary secretes MSH and possibly ACTH?
Which specific region of the ant. pituitary contains acidophils, basophils, and chromophobe cells?
What is the function of the pars tuberalis and the cells acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes?
no known function
List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland:
Growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotrophic, follicle stimulating, luteinizing, melanocyte stimulating
Which hormone from the ant. pituitary increases rate of protein synthesis, increases fat metabolism, and mobilizes amino acid transport?
What are the 7 hormones produced in the anterior pituitary?
Growth hormone (GH), Prolactin (PRL), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
What is the most obvious effect of growth hormone that is produced in ant. pituitary?
on growth plate of long bones
What syndrome can be caused by too little growth hormone?
What is another name for growth hormone?
What controls growth hormone?
GH releasing factor and GH releasing inhibiting factor
What type of effect is it when growth hormone goes directly into fat?
What type of effect is it when growth hormone goes into the liver before going to bones?
Why do athletes use growth hormones?
because it increases rate of protein synthesis and fat metabolism and mobilizes amino acid transport
Which protein hormone is secreted by ant. pituitary and stimulates and maintains milk production aned maintains secretion of estrogen and progesterone by ovaries?
What hormone secreted by ant. pituitary is controlled by PR1 releasing factor?
Its target sites are ovaries and mammary glands.
A glycoprotein secreted by ant. pituitary, it controls release of thyroxin by the thyroid gland.
TSH (thyroid stim. hormone)
What is the target site of TSH?
TSH is controlled by what factor?
thyrotropin releasing factor (TRH)
Secreted by the ant. pituitary gland, what hormone controls manudfacture and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex?
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
What is the target site for ACTH?
Produced by the ant.pituitary, this hormone is a glycoprotein responsible for growth and development of egg follicles in ovaries and stimulates sperm production in males.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
What are the target sites for FSH?
ovaries and testes
What is the name of the glycoprotein that causes ovulation and secretion of sex hormones in both sexes?
LH (luteinizing hormone)
What hormone affects secretion of estrogen, progesterone and testosterone?
What are the target sites for LH?
ovaries and testes
What hormone stimulates dispersal of pigment in chromatophores?
MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone)
What are the target sites for MSH?
melanocytes, which is the melanin in skin
Which hormone slide used leopard frogs as an example?
What specific area of what gland develops as an outgrowth of neural ectoderm of the floor of the 3rd ventricle of the brain?
Posterior lobe of pituitary
What is another name for the posterior lobe of pituitary gland?
What are the 3 secondary divisions of the neurohypophysis?
pars nervosa, infundibulum, and the median eminence
Which endocrine gland actually has no resemblance to a gland, but is in fact a mass of neuralglial cells called pituicytes that are invaded by nerve fibers arising from the hypothalamus (be specific)?
neurohypophysis (post. lobe of pituitary)
Which portion of the pituitary gland does not secrete hormones, but are simply supporting structures?
neurohypophysis (post. lobe of pituitary)
Storage sites for oxytocin and vasopressin located in the neurohypophysis are called what?
What another name for thyroid stimulating hormone?
What is another name for prolactin?
What hormone functions to mature Graffian follicles?
What is another name for vasopressin?
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
Even though it travels via the post. pituitary gland, where does ADH come from?
What are the target sites for ADH?
A polypeptide that increases wather reabsorption by the kidneys.
In high concentration, what hormone causes vasoconstriction and arterial blood pressure to increase?
What hormone reduces volume and increases concentration of urine and controls fluid loss by kidneys?
What hormone is actually released from the hypothalamus but travels through the post. pituitary gland and causes contraction of uterus during labor and delivery?
Which of the hormones secreted by the post. pituitary gland is the only one that operates by positive feedback loop?
What are the target sites of oxytocin?
uterus and mammary glands
What is a commercial form for oxytocin?
The stimulus for this hormone is the suckling action of an infant.
Pitocin is a commercial form of oxytocin used to increase uterine contractions and decrease what?
What is the name of the gland that lies in the upper part of the mediastinum behind the sternum and extends upward into root of neck?
Which gland is fully developed at birth but shrinks as it ages?
What hormone stimulates the maturation of the thymus and other lymphoid tissue?
The effectiveness of T-lymphocytes' response to antigens declines with aging of what gland?
What gland is located below the larynx and weighs about 20-30 grams?
What gland increases in size and becomes more active during puberty, pregnancy, and physiologic stress?
The follicles of the thyroid gland are filled with what substance?
What hormone helps regulate cell metabolism, increases rate of release of energy from carbs, increases rate of protein synthesis, and stimulates fat breakdown?
What hormone is produced by 90% of follicular cells of thyroid?
Are there specific target sites for thyroxin?
No, diffuse throughout the body
What hormone is produced by 10% of follicular cells of the thyroid?
Which of the thyroid hormones increases basal metabolic rate?
What hormone helps control homeostasis of bone?
Which hormone reduces blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity?
Where is calcitonin believed to be produced?
parafollicular or C cells of thyroid gland
The bones are the target sites for what hormone?
What gland consists of 4 small, yellow-ish brown glands embedded in the thyroid?
The parathyroid glands are derived from which pharyngeal pouches during formation?
3rd and 4th
Which gland secretes hormone that is involved in blood calcium and PO4 levels?
What are the 2 types of cells found in the parathyroid gland?
Chief and oxyphilic
Which of the 2 types of cells in the parathyroid synthesizes PTH?
What is the function of the oxyphilic cells of the parathyroid and when do they appear?
No known function, appear after puberty
Which hormone stimulates osteoclasts, but inhibits osteoblastic activity?
This hormone increases blood calcium and decreases phosphate levels.
What are the target sites for parathormone produced by the parathyroid gland?
bones, kidneys, and digesive tract
Low blood calcium levels related to what hormone can result in muscle spasms?
What are the muscle spasms due to low blood calcium levels called?
What is another name for the adrenal glands?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
On top of each kidney embedded in fat
Name an endocrine gland that is really 2 separate glands that have different functions and arising for different sources.
Name the 2 parts of the adrenal gland.
Adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
The adrenal medulla is derived from what during development?
The adrenal cortex is derived from what during development?
Ectoderm from neural crest walls
The adrenal medulla consists of how many types of cells?
What % of adrenal medulla cells produce epinephrine?
The adrenal medulla produces what 2 hormones?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
In large amounts, what 2 hormones elevate body's readiness by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, breathing rate, etc, and is called fight or flight?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are the target sites of epinephrine?
muscles and liver
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are also called what?
Which hormone helps with coping with short term stress?
This hormone is also called adrenaline and helps stimulate glucose release.
What are the target sites for norepinephrine?
Which of the catecholamines constricts blood vessels and increases heart rate?
This catecholamine produced by the adrenal cortex is a major neurotransmitter in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system.
Which of the catecholamines produced by the adrenal medulla causes a condition for which a person would need an epi-pen?
norepinephrine for anaphylactic shock
Name the 3 distinguishable zones of the adrenal cortex.
Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis
Which of the zones of adrenal cortex makes up 10-15% of cortical volume?
Which zone of the adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids?
What is the name of the mineralcorticoid produced by the zona glomerulosa?
Which zone of the adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids?
What is another name for glucocorticoids secreted by zona fasciculata?
75-78% of cortex is located in what zone?
What is the thinnest, innermost layer of the adrenal cortex called?
The zona fasciculata of the adenal cortex secretes cortisol. What other area of the cortex also secretes cortisol?
The zona reticularis makes up what % of the adrenal cortex?
The zona reticularis may also secrete what hormones which have little effect on normal physiological functions
steroid sex hormones
Name a mineralocorticoid synthesized by cells of the zona glomerulosa.
What is the target site for aldosterone?
How does aldosterone function in the blood?
Regulates Na and K levels by conserving Na and excreting K.
When conserving Na+, aldosterone increases blood volume, which increases what?
In high concentrations, which hormone synthesized by the zona glomerulosa is a vasoconstrictor?
Where is cortisol produced?
zonas fasciculata and reticularis
What glucocorticoid inhibits protein synthesis causing amino acid levels in blood to rise?
What glucocorticoid promotes the release of fatty acids from adipose?
What glucocorticoid hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?
The synthesis of new glucose from precursors like lactic acid, glycerol, and certain amino acids is called what?
What is the target site of cortisol?
What hormone helps the body to adapt to long term stress?
Where is DHEA produced and what does it do?
Produced in the adrenal cortex and it stimulates sex drive and induces labor.
What is DHEA the abbreviation for?
What endocrine gland has exocrine and endocrine functions?
Name the part of the pancreas that functions as an endocrine gland.
Islets of Langerhans
What forms the pancreas during development of embryo?
outpocketings that originate on opposite sides of the duodenum
Name 3 types of cells found in the pancreas that have endocrine functions.
Alpha (glucagon), beta (insulin), and delta (somatostatin) c
What is the function of c cells in the Islets of Langerhans?
no known function
Which of the cells from pancreas are smallest and most numerous?
Which of the pancreas cells are large and prominent?
Which pancreatic hormone has straight chain polypeptide of 29 amino acids?
This hormone stimulates the liver to convert glycogen to glucose and promotes gluconeogenesis.
The actions of this hormone cause blood glucose levels to rise.
What is the target site of glucagon?
liver and fatty tissues
Insulin is made up of how many amino acids?
What hormone stimulates the liver to convert glucose to glycogen?
What is the cut-off value for diagnosing diabetes?
More than 200 mg/dl along with failure of glucose tolerance test.
What hormone inhibits gluconeogenesis and promotes transport of glucose into cells?
What is the target site for insulin?
general, diffuse throughout the body
What are 2 other names for Type 1 diabetes?
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and Juvenile onset diabetes
What are 2 other names for Type 2 diabetes?
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and adult onset diabetes
Which type of diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of islet cells?
Type 1 IDDM
Which type of diabetes may not require insulin and may be controlled with diet and weight?
Type 2 adult onset
What endocrine gland is also called epiphysis cerebri?
What gland develops as outpocketings of roof of diencephalon during development?
What structure is the pineal gland attached to?
What are the 2 types of cells in the pineal gland?
pinealocytes and interstitial (neuroglial) cells
What hormone do the pinealcytes secrete and what are its targets?
Melatonin: gonads, pigment cells, and others
What hormone regulates reproductive cycles in lower verts and is involved in photoperiodism in reptiles and birds?
This gland is thought to be the regulator of circadian rhythms such as night/day cycles in mammals.
Estrogen and progesterone are produced by what organs?
What is the target site of estrogen?
uterus and general
What are the target sites of progesterone?
uterus and breast
This hormone stimulates growth of uterine lining.
This hormone stimulates development of uterine lining.
How many oocytes may be found in ovaries of a young fetus?
up to 5 million
About how many oocytes are ovulated during the reproductive life of an average female?
What happens to all the oocytes that are not released during a woman's reproductive life?
What type of follicle is surrounded by single layer of squamous or cuboidal cells?
During what phase is primary oocyte arrested until puberty?
How long may other primary oocytes remain dormant?
through menopause, at 40-50 yrs
What type of follicle has 8-12 layers of granulosa cells?
A mature follicle 10-14 days after enlarging from primordial stage is called what?
About how many layers of amitotic granulosa cells line this follicle?
On about what day of an ovarian cycle does ovulation usually occur?
14 of 28
What is most likely the cause of ovulation?
Surge in LH
What is the temporary blood clot that forms immediately after rupture of Graffian follicle called?
What happens to the cells that are caught within folds of postovulatory follicles?
They release progesterone and estrogen