Helped create the Articles of Confederation. It was made in 1774 to help Boycott the acts and taxes placed on the Americans. It started after the Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable acts were made.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
British troops sent to raid a store of gunpowder. Only about 80 people were killed. These battles started the Revolutionary War.
Olive Branch Petition
In July 1775, this professed America's loyalty to the crown and to stop further hostilities. King George III ignored this and continued the fighting. This led to King Georges use of German soldiers in the war.
Long literary work, usually poetry, discussing the imminent downfall of society in a serious tone. Ben Franklin wrote one about Pennsylvania becoming a German society, and the Puritans wrote one about the story of New World. Often a protest against society.
Glorious Revolution 1688
When William of Orange and his wife Mary took the English throne from James II. Mary was James II daughter and was Protestant, so when James II birthed a son who was Catholic, William and Mary felt the need to take over. Permenently ended chances of Catholocism in England, forcing Catholics to come to America.
Great Puritan Migration
Often referred to as the Winthrop Fleet of 1630, and lasted from about 1620 to 1640. Consisted of 1000 passengers in 11 ships moving from England to Massachusetts Bay Colony. Came as families to America and were motivated by the desire to practice their religion freely.
Fundamental Orders of Conn
Created in 1639 by the Connecticut Colony council. First written constitution in the west (America). Set up a government in Hartford similar to the one in Massachusetts, but gave the men more voting rights and ability to run for office.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended the war of Spanish succession.King Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain versus Queen Anne of Britain and Portugual, Savoy, and the Dutch Republic. Maintained the European Balance of Powers and lead to a series of peace treaties.
John Peter Zenger
New York newspaper printer. His newspaper assailed the corrupt royal government. His cause help lead to the freedom of the press.
John Trumbull/Charles Peale
Both are colonial artists. One is famous for his portraits of George Washington. The other was
from Connecticut and inspired to become a painter.
This event was protesting the Quake's oligarchy lenient policy towards Indians. Occurred in
Philadelphia. It was a march on Philadelphia.
Occurred in North Carolina. This group was against the eastern domination of colonial affairs.
Andrew Jackson was apart of this group.
She was a poet who published a book. She was also a slave. Was never formally educated.
A bloody insurgence that affected New York City. This is from the time period of 1689-1691. Caused by animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants.
Triangular Trade Routes
Yankee seamen would haul Spanish and Portuguese gold, wine, and oranges to London. These would be exchanged for industrial goods, which where then sold for a profit in America. It was infamously profitable.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival that exploded in the 1730s and 1740s that swept through the colonies. It was first ignited by the intellectual pastor, Jonathan Edwards. It put an emphasis on direct spirituality that seriously undermined the older clergy.
An English parson that brought a different style of evangelical preaching in America. He had a powerful voice and toured the colonies where he trumpeted his message of human helplessness and divine omnipotence. His eloquence had brought Jonathan Edwards to tears.
An intellectual pastor who ignited the First Great Awakening. Wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which was one of his most famous sermons. He believed that hell was "paved with the skulls of unbaptized children."
Dominion of New England
Administrative union of English colonies. It was ultimately a failure because the area it encompassed was too large for a single governor to manage. Objectives included the regulation of trade, an increase in religious freedoms, and reformation of land title practices
New England Confederation
It was a political and military alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Its purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Native Americans. It was highly successful in terms of bonding the colonies together, and provided a basis for the further collaboration of Colonies.
Gave large amounts of land to people who agreed to settle at least 50 people on it. Under Dutch colonial rule. Encouraged immigration of Dutch farmers to America.
He was a Quaker. In 1681 he received a plot of fertile land from James II of England. He treated the Indians very well and founded a colony.
It was a rebellion in the Virginia Colony. They were upset that Governor Berkeley did not retaliate against the Indians. Most rebels were frontiersmen that had been forced to untamed land.
It was a part of the triangular trade. It was the voyage of African slaves to the New World. They traveled on crammed ships with horrible living conditions.
This weakened the distinction between the elect and others in the Puritan religion. Hoped to get wider church participation. Made church membership easier to get.
Head Right System
Whoever paid for the transatlantic passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land. The masters, not the servants, benefitted from this system. Meant to encourage the importation of servant workers.
He was a European king. He was king from 1760 to 1820. He was involved in many wars such as the French and Indian war.
Battle of Saratoga
A turning point of the Revolutionary War. Occurred in New York in 1777. British General was forced to retreat.
Chief Joseph Bryant
He was a Mohawk Indian. He was involved in the Revolutionary War. Helped Loyalists.
George Rogers Clark
He was a General in the Revolutionary War. He was from Virginia. He fought against the British.
Battle of Trenton
Occurred in New Jersey. Important turning point in the Revolutionary War for Americans. A defeat for the British.
An English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. Popularized tobacco in England. Searched for the "City of Gold" in South America or "El Dorado".
Queen of England and Queen of Ireland. The daughter of Henry VIII. Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588 under her rule.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal. Pope Alexander VI decreed that all lands west of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and all lands south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain. Signed by Ferdinand II of Aragon and John II of Portugal
An uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony. Virginia Governor William Berkeley refused to retaliate for a series of Indian attacks on frontier settlements, others took matters into their own hands, attacking Indians, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia, and torching the capitol. Resulted in Berkeley being recalled back to England.
Sugar Act 1764
First drastic tax rise of the colonists, when Parliament placed a tax on molasses and other textiles like wine, coffee, and indigo.
Stamp Act 1765
When Parliament placed a tax on printed material and legal documents; newspapers, bonds, licenses, etc. upon the colonists.
Quartering Act 1765
Required Bostonians to house and feed thousands of British soldiers sent to enforce the coercive Acts.
Declaratory Act 1766
Following the Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of Colonies, this asserted Parliament's right to tax the colonies in "all cases whatsoever."
John Paul Jones
Uttered the words: "I have not yet begun to fight" when battling a British ship off of the American Coast. Later prevailed in forcing the surrender of that ship and sailing off in it when his own began to sink from the result of battle damages. American Naval Commander during the Revolutionary War.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The Treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. Signed in a country that Britain did not (and might still not) like. Many treaties are named after this place, around 25, and so a year is needs to be included.
This person contributed to the American curriculum by launching the University of Pennsylvania. Negotiated the alliance with France during the American Revolution. Wore simple dress and attire to the negotiations in France.
Battle of Yorktown
This battle was the turning point during the Revolutionary War. Two-pronged attack by the French navy and American ground troops. Regardless of the outcome of this battle, George III stubbornly continued the war.
These acts were passed in 1767. Placed import duties on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. Led to the stationing of British troops in Boston and eventually the Boston Massacre.
Seized by the rebels. The British fought back with full force. Caused King George III to declare that the colonies were committing treason.
US General Thomas Conway wrote a letter to General Horatio Gates to remove Washington as leader of the Continental Army. After the plan became public, he resigned. The plan was generally disliked in public opinion.
American general in the Revolutionary War. Later he defected to the British side. Aided both sides significantly while they were in favor.
Albany Congress 1754
Benjamin Franklin was the leading spirit of this gathering. The goal was to get the Iroquois Indians loyal to the British in the war and to defend the colonies against France. Ultimately failed because it did not give the colonies enough independence.
Battle of Quebec
British forces defeated the French army that was defending this city with guidance of William Pitt and James Wolfe. It was a night attack with the British armies scaling up the cliffs of the city. Both leaders were fatally wounded, but British turned out victorious and city surrendered.
Battle of Louisburg
The first significant victory that belonged to the British army during the French and Indian War. Pitt lead this expedition. Fell easily after a surprise siege.
Theory of Mercantilism/Adam Smith
The common belief that wealth was power and that a country's economic power could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in the nation's treasury. To do this, the country must focus on exports over imports. Most importantly, needed to provide products needed by the mother country, England.
Caused a lot of hostility from the the colonists when he asked British navy to strictly enforce the Navigation Laws when he was prime minister. Responsible for the Sugar Act of 1764, Quartering Act of 1765, and the Stamp tax. Undermined the basic rights of the colonists as British citizens.
Englishman who colonized Virginia. This is the actual man who married Pocahontas, not John Smith. Saved his colony by cultivating tobacco.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Important Naval Battle between two warring factions. One side lost, and one side won. The side that won started its era of naval supremacy.
The man who everyone thinks married Pocahontas thanks to Disney. This man led the early development of Jamestown. Did other important things in the New World.
First settlement in the New World. Settled by settlers. Established in 1607
Some British Dude. Apparently a Naval Commander. Also he apparently was governor of Virginia at some point during his life.
Was a French theologian and pastor. He was part of the Protestant Reformation. Leading figure in the creation of Christian Theology.
Was a leading figure in the founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Thought of his colony as being "a city upon a hill". Served as governor 12 times.
Was the leader of New Netherland, until the British took it over and named it New York. He was involved with many developments of New Amsterdam now New York City.
King Philip's War
Was a conflict between Native Americans and English colonists in New England. Gave colonists more independence and self identity. It would influence the French Indian War.
Known as the "Great Commoner" and the "Organizer of Victory". Led an expedition against someplace during some war. Took part in some aspect of a European Country's Government
Treaty of Paris 1763
A treaty that pertained to the New World. Signed before the American Revolution. Many other treaties are named this as well.
A 1763 uprising by a Ottawan chief by this name. His name is possibly or possibly not a name of a car or car manufacturer. Helped to drive the British out of the Ohio Country
Proclamation of 1763
This prohibited colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Was put into effect to try and keep colonists from coming into conflicts with Indians. Angered colonists.
Samuel De Champlain
The Father of New France. Established friendly relations with the Hurons, but hostile relations with the Iroquois. His name is almost the name of a certain type of wine.
This event was when British Redcoats killed 5 civilians. This event fueled the Revolutionary War. This Event was depicted in many different ways.
Committees of Correspondence
These were shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the thirteen colonies. They came Together to share responses to Britain. These groups rallied opposition on common occurrences.
Boston Tea Party
This event was a rebellion that took place in a harbor in Massachusetts. It was against the East India Company's monopoly. Fueled the American Revolution.
Also known as the Coercive Acts. Four of these acts were a direct response to the Boston Tea Party. Britain wanted to make an example out of Massachusetts.
Britain set up this piece of legislation to issue its basis on the governance of a certain land north to theColonies. It allowed Catholic faith. It also took over some Indian reserves.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Answered the question of how Ohio land will be divided. Proposed an acreage of land to be sold and the proceeds be used to pay national debt. Settlement would be divided into townships and then into square sections with one set aside for public schools.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The dispute that states like New York and Virginia could sell tracts of land west of the Appalachians to pay off debts while other states could not do so led to this piece of legislation. In the end, these lands were ceded to the federal government. These lands would now be made into new states.
A rebellion in western Massachusetts led by farmers who were disgruntled about getting farmland mortgages. This rebellion's leader was convicted, but later pardoned. This event showed the need for a stronger federal government.
Also known as the "small state" plan. It wanted every state to get the same number of representatives. A compromise would be reached that let this plan come in effect as the Senate.
Also known has the "large state" plan. It wanted every state to get representatives based on population. A compromise would be reached that let this plan come in effect as the House of Representatives.
Compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plans. Lead to the present day bicameral Congress. Sparked controversy for the 3/5 compromise in the south.
People that supported the ratification of the Constitution. Constituted of the wealthier, more educated and organized. Supported by Washington and Ben Franklin.
People that opposed the ratification of the Constitution. Wanted more states rights and a weaker central government. Supported by Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, the poorer people, debtors and paper-moneyites.
The Federalist Papers
Written by Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. Propaganda designed to get states to ratify the constitution. Used to support stronger central government.
Society of the Cincinatti
A group of Continental Army officers who formed an exclusive hereditary order. Criticized for its pretensions and aristocratic ideals. Formed to preserve ideals from the revolution.
Charles Beard's book: "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the U.S."
This man is known as one of the most influential American historians of the first half of the 20th century. Wrote a book about how the American Constitution was created by rich stockholders to hinder the common people, specifically farmers. Most commonly known for his works on The Rise of American Civilization (1927).
Resistance movement occurring in the western part of the United States in the 1790's. The movement stems from the resistance of a 1791 excise tax on whiskey put on by Alexander Hamilton.
Washington's First Cabinet
One of the precedents created by the first President of the United States. This grouping attached to the Executive Branch of American government consists of advisors for the President. Some of the members of this group, specific to one President, include Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and Henry Knox.
Hamilton and the Bank of the US
This man was the Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington. His greatest creation was killed by Andrew Jackson. He is responsible for creating the "monster" in Grapes of Wrath.
This man was the Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington. He is responsible for creating the Bank of the US in the 1790's. He can be seen today on the ten dollar bill.
Signed in hopes of ending conflicts between the U.S. and the British. Stated that Britain was to pay for American ships that were seized in 1793. Also said that Americans had to pay the debts they owed to Britain from before the Revolution.
Society of the Cincinnati
Formed after the American Revolution. Continental Army officers who formed an exclusive hereditary order. Most Americans ridiculed them because those officers were pretentious.
Delivered by a president, what he said was printed in the newspapers in 1796. Advised the avoidance of permanent alliances (like the Franco-American Treaty of 1778). Stated that the unity of government was essential to the real independence and tranquility of people.
2nd President of the U.S. Tactless and prickly aristocrat with no appeal to the masses. Prevented an all out war with France; responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These pieces of legislation were aimed at pro-Jeffersonian "aliens" who were scorned by the Federalist Party. Raised the residence requirements for aliens who yearned to be citizens from 5 years to 14 years. Stated that anyone who impeded the policies of the government would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment
Judiciary Act 1789
The first Congress created effective federal courts with this legislation. It organized the Supreme Court with a chief justice and five associates. A federal district was also created along with circuit courts and the office of attorney general.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
Fearing prosecution for sedition, Jefferson secretly penned a series of resolutions, which were passed by certain states in 1798 and 1799. Both Jefferson and Madison stressed that in creating the federal government, the thirteen states had agreed to a compact, or contract, regarding its jurisdiction. These resolutions concluded that the federal regime had exceeded its constitutional powers and that nullification (specifically for the Alien and Sedition Acts) was both preferable and within the rights of the states.
Pinckney Treaty 1795
Spain feared that Jay's treaty foreshadowed an Anglo-American alliance, so they moved quickly to strike a deal with the USA. This treaty with Spain granted the Americans virtually everything they demanded. This included free navigation of the Mississippi and the large disputed territory north of Florida.
When President Adam's envoys to Paris were asked to pay a huge bribe as the price of doing diplomatic business, humiliated Americans rose up in wrath against France. These terms were intolerable, and the American trio knew that bribes were standard diplomatic devices in Europe, but they gagged at paying a quarter of a million dollars for a mere talk without any assurances of a settlement. Negotiations quickly broke down, and war hysteria swept through the United States with the slogan "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute".
Convention of 1800
Although it made him extremely unpopular, Adams knew that America was still too weak to fight a war with France and come out without serious damages. Therefore, at this conference, France agreed to annul the 22 year old marriage of convenience, but as a kind of alimony the United States agreed to pay the damage claims of American shippers. This ended the nation's only peacetime military alliance for a century and a half.
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Two of the United States' first political parties. Arose from the dispute over the United States Constitution and the power of the federal government. The two groups were led by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
An attack made by American General "Mad Anthony Wayne" against invading Indians from the northwest. The defeat of the Indians ended the alliance made with the British and Indians. Final battle of the Northwest Indian War.
He skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo. French were unable to reconquer the land, and they had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. His military vigor indirectly led to Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana to North America.
Marbury vs. Madison
Was a Supreme Court decision passed under Chief Justice John Marshall. Established judicial review. Cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did.
Lewis and Clark
Led the expedition to explore the lands bought by the Louisiana Purchase. They mapped out the land, and learned a lot regarding the geography of the land. Their expedition bolstered America's claim to the western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
Jeffersonian "Revolution of 1800"
The peaceful transfer of power, as the Federalists stepped down from office peacefully. Jefferson believed that it represented a return to the original spirit of the Revolution. It would restore the republican experiment.
Formally reopened trade with all nations except England and France. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Republican congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America
Embargo Act 1807
Law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Caused by Britain and France harassment of the US's ships and men. Ended up hurting America's economy more than the Europeans, and helped revive the Federalists.
The leader of a Northern African country was dissatisfied with his share of protection money. After four years of fighting, Jefferson succeeded in reaching a treaty of peace from the country with a bargain price of $60,000. The war utilized the Jefferson's mosquito fleet
Macon's Bill #2
A reward given the first of either Britain or France for embargoing the other and respecting US trade. The embargo act and the non intercourse act were passed after this. France agreed first and instigated the War of 1812.
Justice Samuel Chase
Almost was impeached because of claims of his high crimes and misdemeanors, but was not guilty. Justice who was almost impeached by the Jeffersonians. Proved that the separation of powers is effective.
British ship attacked a U.S. ship off the coast of Virginia. Attempted to get 4 deserters off the U.S. ship but refused by Captain. The damage to the boat caused 3 deaths.
National representation of Great Britain. Known as a stout, middle-aged man who wears a union flag waist coat. Similar to Uncle Sam of the U.S.
Judiciary Act 1801
Act that was made to keep the court Federalist. Adams ordered the "midnight Judges" to enter the supreme court before he left office. Chief Justice John Marshall was appointed and made many Federalist decisions in the future.
Hamilton vs. Burr Duel
One was planning the secession of New York and New England but the other foiled his plans. He was challenged to this. This marked the end of the Federalist party as the smartest of their group was killed.
Napolean's Orders/British Orders
Issued in 1806. European ports under French control were closed to foreign shipping. French struck back, ordering the seizure of all merchant ships that entered England.
The War Hawks
These people were desperate to fight. Mainly from the South and West. Wanted to wipe out a renewed Indian threat to the pioneer settlers.
Founded in 1816. Created because there was severe inflation. The case McCulloch v. Maryland involved an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a branch of this.
Two Shawnee brothers. Known to non-Indians as "the Prophet." Brought together all the tribes east of the Mississippi, inspiring a movement of Indian unity and cultural renewal.
Tariff of 1816
Set custom duties extremely high to discourage imports. Designed to protect American industries from competition. First protective tariff.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812. Restored antebellum relations with Britain. Battle of New Orleans was fought after this despite end of conflict
Panic of 1819
One of the first major financial crisis' in US history. Occurred after the Embargo Act. Ended the era of good feelings.
A successful lawyer in the antebellum era. Known for his founding of a widely popular dictionary. Leader of the Whig party
Treaty between US and Britain concerning Canadian border. There was also a disarmament in the US-Canadian frointer. There would also be peace between US and Canada.
North American Review
First literary magazine in the US. Nathan Hale founded this. It was founded in Boston.
The American System
Created by Henry Clay. This method had three parts: a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a network of roads and canals. Federal funding for the roads and canals was vetoed by President Madison.
Oliver Hazard Perry
After a few land invasions into Canada were fought back, America tried to get into Canada through the Great Lakes. This naval officer managed ships on Lake Erie. His victory boosted America's morale.
The Missouri Compromise
This agreement was inspired mainly by Henry Clay. It allowed in another slave state, and accepted Maine as a free state. Slavery was not permitted north of the 36° 30' line in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase area.
A pro-federalist person who influenced Virginia to ratify the Constitution. Was also a member of the three American diplomats involved in the XYZ affair. Later became a chief justice.
Battle of the Thames
A decisive American victory in the War of 1812. Saw William Henry Harrison's forces face off against British general's Henry Procter's in Upper Canada. It resulted in the death of the Native American chief Tecumseh.
Era of Good Feelings
A period from 1816-1824 where partisan anger subsided under the presidency of James Monroe. Marked by a sense of nationalism that followed America's victory in the War of 1812. Was also largely due to the dissolution of the Federalist Party following the Hartford Convention.
An adept naval hero that was active in both the War of 1812 and the Barbary Wars. He captured the British frigate Macedonian in the War of 1812. He persuaded Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli to sign peace treaties in order to put an end to the Barbary Wars.