Political genius, New York lawyer, one-time military aide to General Washington, and illegitimate son of a Scottish merchant in the West Indies. He had been unhappy with the Articles of Confederation and the wear government created, so he called for a national convention to overhaul the entire document. He then found an important ally, James Morrison of Virginia, who persuaded the Virginia legislature to convene an interstate conference on commercial questions. Only five states sent delegates to the meeting in 1786. He was the First Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington, founder of the Customs Service and the Coast Guard and also founder of the Federalist Party. He played a key role in building the American government by serving on Washington's staff for the Revolutionary War from 1777-1781.
Was the 4th President of the United States. An American politician and known as the "Father of the Constitution." In 1787 he was one of the co-authors of the Federalist Papers and wrote the Constitution's Bill of Rights in 1791. He devised a detailed plan for a new "national" government (The Virginia Plan: called for a new national legislator consisting of two houses). He argued that specifying rights were reserved to the people would limit those rights. He was the most creative political thinker of his generation. His most important achievement was resolving the two questions that have served as obstacles to the creation of an effective national government which were: the question of sovereignty and limited power. He decided all power at all levels of governments flowed ultimately from the people, resolving this made possible one of the features of the constitution (Distribution of powers between national and state government).
George Washington chose him as Secretary of State. He had recently served as minister to France. He believed in having an agrarian republic, believed the United States should develop some manufacturing capacity, and opposed the development of an advanced industrial economy because it would increase the number of workers. Basically, he envisioned a decentralized society, dominantly small property owners engaging largely in Agrarian activities.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress provided for a supreme court of six members with a chief justice and five associate justices; thirteen district courts with one judge apiece and three circuit courts of appeal each to consist of one of the district judges sitting with two of the supreme court justices. The supreme court was given the power to make the final decision in cases involving the constitutionality of state laws.
Report on Manufacturers of 1791
Hamilton wrote and laid out a grand scheme for stimulating the growth of industry in the United States and wrote a glowing of the advantages to the nation of a healthy manufacturing base.
Bank of the United States
Hamilton argues that creation of a national bank was compatible with the intent of the Constitution. House and Senate agreed on the bill. Began operations in 1791 under a charter that granted it the right to continue for twenty years.
Was a tax protest in Pennsylvania in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was rooted in western dissatisfaction with a 1791 excise tax on whiskey. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to centralize and fund the national debt. From the national perspective the issue was how laws passed by the Congress would be enforced.
Refers to the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States of America. The federal government recognizes tribal nations as "domestic dependent nations" and has established a number of laws attempting to clarify the relationship between the federal, state, and tribal governments. Made it illegal for an American to wage war against any country at peace with the United States.
Declared in part: "If any person shall within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States begin or set on foot or provide or prepare the means for any military expedition or enterprise...against the territory or dominions of any foreign prince or state of whom the United States was at peace that person would be guilty of a misdemeanor." The act also forbade foreign war vessels to outfit in American waters and set a three mile territorial limit at sea. The act was amended several times and remains in force.
John Jay, secretary of state, was instructed to secure compensation for British assaults on American shipping and demand withdrawal of their forces. His treaty in 1794 settled the conflict with Britain, established undisputed American sovereignty over the entire Northwest, and produced a good commercial relationship with Britain.
In 1795, Spain allowed Americans to navigate down the Mississippi and reload goods in New Orleans, the 31st parallel became the northern boundary, and Spanish authorities had to prevent Indians in Florida from launching raids across the border.
In 1797, George Washington retired from office and wrote a letter of disapproval to the Republicans for their actions against the Federalist diplomatic program.
Taxes on imports to America and exports from America were called tariffs. Because there was no federal income tax, the federal government gained most of its revenues throughout the 19th century from tariffs.
Quasi War with France
An undeclared war between the United States and France, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements over treaties and America's status as a neutral in the Wars of the French Revolution. Fought entirely at sea, the Quasi-War was largely a success for the fledgling US Navy as its vessels captured numerous French privateers and warships, while only losing one of its vessels.
Department of Navy
Was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps (and when directed by the Congress or President, the United States Coast Guard). It is headed by the Secretary of the Navy, also known as the SECNAV in naval jargon. He is assisted by an Under Secretary of the Navy. The Department was a cabinet position, along with the War Department which contained the US Army until 1947 when the National Military Establishment was formed. The National Military Establishment was later renamed Department of Defense (DOD) in 1949. The Department of the Navy then became a component of the DOD.
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Federalists began to consider ways to silence the Republican opposition and the result was these Acts. They were some of the most controversial legislation in American History. The republicans interpreted the new laws as part of a Federalist campaign to destroy them, so they fought back. Alien Act: placed new obstacles in the way of foreigners who wished to become American citizens and it also strengthened the president's hand in dealing with aliens (discouraged immigration and encouraged some foreigners already in the country to leave)-Sedition Act: the government could prosecute those who engaged in sedition (treason) against the government (used it to arrest 10 men whose only crime was criticizing the Federalist government).
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
The Republicans laid out a theory for state action in these two resolutions in 1798-1799. One was written anonymously (later found to be Jefferson) and was adopted by the Kentucky Legislature and the other was written by Madison and was adopted by the Virginia Legislature. Used the ideas of John Locke to argue that the federal government had been formed by a contract among the states and possessed only certain delegated powers (if happened under undelegated power, it was considered unathorative and a void). If the states agreed that the central government exceeded these powers, they could nullify the law.
Called for a new national legislature consisting of two houses (lower house: states would be represented in proportion to their population; upper house: elected by lower house under no rigid system of representation). Aroused immediate opposition among delegates and came about because Edmond Randolph proposed an idea that a national government should be established (consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary).
Had been an obstacle to the creation of an effective national government. Questions arose like how can there both national and state governments work at the same time? James Madison decided that there was neither the federal nor the state governments had total control because total control belonged to the people. This distributed powers between the national and state government.
The Great Compromise
Delegates fought for weeks about how the new nation would work. So on July 2nd a "grand committee was formed where the delegates resolved the problem of representation. Representation would now work with a legislature where states would be represented in the national government. The issue of slavery was also addressed and it was decided that nobody would have any authority to stop the slave trade for twenty years.
Separation of Powers
Here the idea of many centers of power "checking each other" to avoid tyranny was put into play. This decided that congress would have to chambers; the senate, and the house of representatives. The president would have power to veto acts of congress and the federal courts would have protection from the executive and legislature.
Checks and Balances
It was created among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Congress would have two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives, each with members elected in a different way and for different terms, and each checking the other, since both would have to agree before any law could be passed.
Supporters of the constitution. They had support by Franklin and Washington. It implied that they were less committed to a "nationalist" government than in fact they were. They also had support by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.
Their name implies that they have nothing to offer except opposition and chaos. But they had serious and intelligent arguments of their own. Presented themselves as defenders of the true principles of the Revolution. They believed the constitution would betray the principles by establishing a strong, potentially tyrannical, center of power. Their biggest complaint was that the Constitution lacked a bill of rights.
The Federalist Papers
Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. They were widely published in newspapers throughout the nation and explained the meanings and virtues of the Constitution. They were written to counter the Anti-federalists. The letters were later issued as a book. They are among the greatest American contributions to political theory.
Election of 1789
George Washington runs unopposed, only 8 senators and 13 representatives take their seats. John Adams becomes vice president, Thomas Jefferson becomes the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Treasury becomes Alexander Hamilton, and the position of Secretary of War goes to Henry Knox. This was the 1st election.
Election of 1792
George Washington unanimously elected for a second term. Had problems in the west with Indians because they fought for all their homeland. He did not trust and was against political parties.This was the nation's second election. Federalists in favor of strong national government, led by Alexander Hamilton ederalists were Thomas Pinckney and Alexander Hamilton.and had the support of George Washington. Opposed by the Republicans. Washington ran unopposed and was elected.
Election of 1796
George Washing refused to serve a third term as president despite pressure from his admirers. Thomas Jefferson was the undisputed candidate for the republican party, John Adams was the federalist candidate. The federalist party had the majority, even with the majority Adams only won by three electoral votes due to federalist division. Other prominent federalists were Thomas Pinckney and Alexander Hamilton.
Election of 1800
A particularly bitter election. Republican candidate was Thomas Jefferson. Federalist candidate was John Adams. Federalists accused Jefferson of being a dangerous radical that would bring a reign of terror. Republicans accused Adams of being a tyrant that wanted to enslave the people. Republicans won the majority but Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson tied. Jefferson eventually won and federalists now only held the majority in the judicial branch.