A catabolic process that produces a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
The catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP.
Electron Transport Chains
An advantage to living systems because it keeps electrons from exploding during cell respiration.
Oxidized and Reduces
In cellular respiration, glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced because glucose loses electrons and oxygen gains electrons.
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP.
Citric Acid Cycle
Acetyl-CoA enters this and in the end 4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP come out.
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage in cellular repiration.
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP.
An organism that can do either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
Occurs in bacteria and yeast; its products are ethanol and CO2.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Occurs in fungi and bacteria; its product is lactic acid.
Plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.
A stack of thylakoids in chloroplast.
The initial corporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
A discreet quality of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle.
When it is hit by light, its pigments become excited because absorption of a photon or light boosts an electron to a higher energy level.
A light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction-complex center surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes.
Light Harvesting Complex
A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules that captures light energy and tranfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem.
A complex of proteins associated with pigment associated with a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron receptor. Located centrally in a photosystem.
Primary Electron Receptor
In the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, a specialized molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chlorophyll a molecules and that accepts electrons from them.
Noncyclic Electron Flow
The electron flow from PSII to PSI, and then finally to NADP+.
Cyclic Electron Flow
The cycling of electrons within PS I.
The second of two minor stages in photosynthesis. It involves the fixation of carbon dioxide and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
It it inefficient because it does not produce glucose like photosynthesis or ATP like cellular respiration.
Take in CO2 at night and store it in organic acids; release CO2 during the day for use in the Calvin cycle when light is available for the light reactions.
USE PEP carboxylase and combine with CO2 with PEP to make oxaloacetate, which is converted to malate, and is stored in the bundle-sheath cells.