United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892), an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.
Collis P. Huntington
R.R Baron of the Central Pacific. One of the "Big Four"(four men that funded railroads around the late 1860's. He was an adept lobbyist., One of the Big Four with Leland Stanford, he was involved in both railroads and shipping. He founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States.
James J. Hill
railroad entrepreneur who built and operated the Great Northern Railroad from St. Paul, Minnesota to Everett, Washington; without any federal grants or subsidies, the Great Northern Railroad made money by shipping goods to Asia, GNR became the most successful transcontinental railroad and the only one that wasn't eventually forced into bankruptcy
Interstate Commerce Act
Approved on February 4, 1887 the Interstate Commerce Act created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. With this act the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation.
Interstate Commerce Commission
A goverenment group who regulated businesses that crossed state borders. At first it was weak, but then congress started making laws that made it stronger. This group helped stop monopolies. a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation.
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890 First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
This was a case where the government sued E.C Knight Co. due a violation in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act since E.C. controlled 98% of the sugar refinement industry. The court ruled in favor of E.C. Knight, stating that manufacturing was not subject to the act. This made regulation more difficult.
Thomas A. Edison
He perfected the light bulb in 1879. Technological advancement by creating generators, voltage regulators, electric meters, and insulated wiring. Phonograph, mimeograph, microphone, motion picture camera and film, battery, etc
Henry W. Grady
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world. New South
New South Creed
idea that promoted industry, diversification of agriculture, white and black cooperation, need for new men to lead South, need for harmonious relations with the North
William H. Sylvis
In 1863 he was was elected P of the Iron Moulder's International Union. He traveled the country encourage iron molders to organize. In 1866 his dream of a nationwide union to represent all works, he called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU).
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Terence V. Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
railroad strikes of 1877
In the economic slump that followed the Panic of 1873, railroad managers cut wages, increased workloads, and laid off workers, especially union members. Workers responded with strikes and riots. In July, unionized railroad workers organized strikes to protest wage cuts. Violence spread from Pennsylvania and West Virginia to the Midwest, Texas, and California, derailing trains and burning railyards. State militia, organized and commanded by employers, broke up picket lines and fired into crowds. Factory workers wives and merchants aided the strikers, while railroads enlisted strikebreakers to replace union men.
Pittsburght experienced the worst violence. State troopers bayoneted and fired on rock-throwing demonstrators, killing ten and wounding many more. infuriated, the mob drove the troopers into a roundhouse and set fires that destroyed 39 building, 104 engines, and 1,245 freight and passenger cars. Next day, troopers shot their way out and killed 20 more citizens before fleeing. After a month, President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in federal soldiers-the first significant use of the army to quell labor unrest.
Haymarket Square Bombing
(1886) In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights of Labor and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
(1892) It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.
Prominent socialist leader (and five time socialist party presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Lester Frank Ward
sociologist who wrote Dynamic Sociology in 1883 and other books , in which he argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished, and he believed that an active government engaged in positive planning, which was societies best hope.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
California writer and activist, his angrily eloquent book Progress and Poverty, published in 1879, became one of the best selling nonfiction works in American publishing history. He blamed social problems on the ability of a few monopolists to grow wealthy as a result of rising land values, and that the increase in the value of the land was an unearned increment, produced by the growth of society, and that the profits belonged to the community.
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
rivaling Henry George, he wrote Looking Backward, a utopian novel, published in 1888, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown. The society had emerged through peace and evolution, and all of the trusts of the 1800's joined together form one government controlled trust, which distributed the abundance of the industrial economy equally among all people. "Fraternal cooperation" replaced competition, there were no class divisions, and there was great nationalism.
ideology founded in the criticism over the capitalist system and its obvious excesses