United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions, An African-American ragtime pianist and composer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. "Maple Leaf Rag" and "The Entertainer" are two of his best-known works.
type of music that blended African-American songs and European musical forms. originated in the 1880s
positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe
Refers to the immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who came primarily during the age of Industrialization in the late 1800's and early 1900's.
1) the immigration destination point in 1855 2) Its main purpose was to screen out undesirable immigrants 3) it was plagued with corruption, eventually shut down and brought forth Ellis Island
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.
strict standards of dress, manners, and sexual behavior dictated the era, Middle class: men work, women make home husband's refuge, Strict code of gentility that permeated late-nineteenth-century society.
Henry Ward Beecher
prominent Congregationalist clergyman, social reformer and abolitionist in the mid to late 19th century. In 1847, he was appointed the first minister of the new Plymouth Congregational Church in Brooklyn. Gained fame on the lecture circuit due to his over the top preaching style. Was also involved in an 1875 adultery trial in which he was accused of having an affair with a married woman, was one of the most famous American trials of the 19th century.
cult of domesticity
..., the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Rowland H. Macy
Between 1843 and 1855, Macy opened four retail dry goods stores, including the original Macy's store in downtown Haverhill, Massachusetts, established in 1851 to serve the mill industry employees of the area. They all failed, but he learned from his mistakes. Macy moved to New York City in 1858 and established a new store named "R.H Macy Dry Goods" at Sixth Avenue on the corner of 14th Street, significantly north of other dry goods stores of the time.
opened a department store in Philadelphia named the Grand Depot, hundreds of department stores opened after this department store did
brought the department store concept to America.
-the store was several floors and also increased the sales.
Charles W. Eliot
president of Harvard who introduced electives to colleges, making American students more able to compete with European scholars
Andrew D. White
wrote of controversy surrounding Darwin's discovery; church vehemently opposed but was later forced to seek compromise
representative for or head of the political machine; gained votes for their parties by doing favors for people.
well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
New York democratic party/political machine; gained notoriety for corrupt practices; political machines came to power because of the rapid growth of cities-machines traded services to city-dwellers for votes at the polls
William Marcy Tweed
nicknamed "boss" tweed he was a major political boss in the late1800s. From New York, he gained power in Tanny Hall through the appointment and election of his friends. This was called the Tweed Ring. In his years in politics he managed to steal almost 200 million dollars in NY taxpayer money and control almost all democratic state and city nominations from 1860-1870.
Political cartoonist who's work exposed the abuses of the Tweed ring, criticized the South's attempts to impede Reconstruction, and lampooned labor unions. Created the animal symbols of the Democratic and republican parties.
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
Robert M. Hartley
In 1834 this man founded the New York association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. He felt that children learned bad habits from their parents, so he organized a system of "home visitation" were he sent volunteers into slums and urge parents to change their ways. Also demanded pure milk, public baths, and better housing laws.
New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor
a charitable organization in New York City, established in 1843 and incorporated in 1848 with the aim of helping the deserving poor and providing for their moral uplift. The Association was one of the most active and innovative charity organizations in New York, pioneering many private-public partnerships in education, healthcare and social services.
Charles Loring Brace
In 1853 he founded NY Children's Aid Society where he established dormitories, reading rooms, and workshops where the boys could learn practical skills.
Children's Aid Society
a child-saving organization begun by Charles Loring Brace; it took children from the streets in large cities and placed them with farm families on the prairie.
Josephine Shaw Lowell
founded the New York Charity Organization Society
Charity Organization Society
created by Josephine Shaw Lowell, took a scientific approach to aiding poor, interested in controlling the poor but failed to convert them to middle class Victorian values
United States reformer who led moral crusades against art and literature that he considered obscene (1844-1915)
Although scholarly and reserved, he preached two sermons in 1892 in which he attacked the political corruption of New York City government. Backed by the evidence he collected, his statements led to both the exposure of Tammany Hall and to subsequent social and political reforms.
Was a Social Gospel preacher who sought to improve living conditions rather than focusing totally on saving souls. Also looked for social reform among the slums.
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization, the idea that faith should be expressed through good works
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty. 1889
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours.
John L. Sullivan
a famous world class irish american heavyweight bare-knuckle boxer
the new woman
dissatisfaction with the cult of domesticity, began to celebrate female virtue and support social and political responsibility of women, confidence to break ideals and compete with men, clubs, colleges, divorce, bicycling. Don't need to rely on men.
Charles Eliot Norton
a leading American author, social critic, and professor of art. He was a militant idealist, a progressive social reformer, and a liberal activist whom many of his contemporaries considered the most cultivated man in the United States
He crusaded militantly for civil service reform, honesty in government and a moderate tariff. In his newspaper, "The Nation," he criticized the US for the lack of these things.
The "refinement" of America. Manners, parties, large houses, etc. all part of wealthy America.
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw." A realist.
He was America's most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used "romantic" type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the "Gilded Age". The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.
Sarah Orne Jewett
Stories tend to focus on character rather than plot or setting, a local color realist of the New England area, Maine; exposed to people and customs of southern Maine because she accompanied her father on hs rural rounds; 1849-1909
A famous novelist of the period who wrote about the gross underside of urban America. Crane gained the most notariety from his novel Red Badge of Courage, which was about a young Civil War recruit.
believed human behavior was determined by forces beyond the individual power, esp. biology and the environment; they tended to look at life as a grim losing battle, These were philosophers who were concerned with what everything in nature and the physical world was made of.
Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie
(1900) This novel was about a woman who left the country life for this city life. The novel discusses the issue of women in the city who are unable to support themselves and and they are exploited my men.
Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
(1889) Highly critical of business tycoons, which he referred to as the "leisure class". He suggested that a new economic system be adapted in which highly trained engineers would hold power since he believed they could only fully comprehend the "machine process" by which he said modern society needed to be governed. Conspicuous consumption.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs. "form follows function"
broke the Old World traditions in art, and was vigorously American in his paintings of New England maritime life and other native subjects., An American artist who painted pictures in watercolor about the Civil War.
a painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He was one of the greatest American painters of his time, an innovating teacher, and an uncompromising realist
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
Kate Chopin, The Awakening
It is one of the earliest American novels that focuses on women's issues without condescension. It is also widely seen as a landmark work of early feminism.
The novel's blend of realistic narrative, incisive social commentary, and psychological complexity makes The Awakening a precursor of American modernism
William Torrey Harris
U.S. comissioner of education in 1889 to 1906, helped establish kindergartens in public schools, educational reformer, saw public schools as a great instrument "to lift all classes of people into...civilized life," promoted ideas of great educators, believed that schools should properly prepare students for full participation in community life
descendents of Spanish/Portuguese-born, BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
French-speaking Acadians who were moved to Louisiana to protect Britain from being overthrown in the newly acquired Canadian territory- Roman Catholic
The District was set up to limit prostitution to one area of town where authorities could monitor and regulate the practice. In the late 1890s, the New Orleans city government studied the legalized red light districts of northern German and Dutch ports and set up Storyville based on such models. B
originating in New Orleans, used instruments that could be marched with outside. improvisation