American inventor of the light bulb, the phonograph, and other devices using electricity (1847-1931)
Alexander Graham Bell
American inventor of the telephone in 1876.
Italian engineer who discovered radio waves and designed the first radio (1901).
Founder of Communism; author of The Communist Manifesto in 1848 which blamed capitalism for poor working conditions and a class struggle.
British nurse whose efforts during the Crimean War (1853-1856), combined with those of Clara Burton (U.S.), transformed nursing into a profession for women.
U.S. nurse whose efforts during the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865), combined with those of Florence Nightingale (England), transformed nursing into a profession for women.
Founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903 to promote women's rights to full citizenship and to vote.
German emperor from 1888-1918 when Germany had become the strongest military and industrial power in Europe; he was forced to abdicate at the end of WWI.
The last czar of Russia (1868-1918) who tried to repress people's uprising which led to a revolution; he and his family were executed by the revolutionaries (the Bolsheviks).
Hawaiian Queen who tried to strengthen her monarchy by keeping the islands under her peoples' control but the U.S. government sent in military forces, deposed the queen, and annexed Hawaii in 1898.
French scientist who discovered that radium emitted energy or radiation (1867-1934).
German-born scientist and mathematician working in Switzerland who provided a new view of the universe and his special theory of relativity. He emigrated to the U.S. when he felt threatened by Nazis (1879-1955).
Austrian psychiatrist who devised psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
French impressionist painter (1840-1926) who became world renowned.
Spanish artist and sculptor who lived in France and became very influential to modern art.