A resolution (1846) that slavery would never exist in the new territory of Texas. Passed the House but not the Senate. Stirred up conflict over slavery and Fed. Gov't's rights.
Compromise of 1850
Compromise to bring California in as a free state, but allow the citizens to vote for slavery. In exchange, the slave trade in DC would end, and started the fugitive slave laws. The failed bill was later passed as separate parts. (Clay, Calhoun, Webster)
Fugitive Slave Act
Act in 1850, part of Compromise of 1850. Forced northerners to capture and return runaway slaves. Enraged northerners and led to many states not enforcing the law.
Kansas Nebraska Act
A bill that split the Nebraska territory into Kansas and Nebraska. Done to encourage western settlement and to enable the building of a transcontinental railroad. The bill repealed the Missouri Compromise by enabling both territories to vote for slavery.
Strong abolitionist who led attacks with his sons against pro-slavery settlers. At Pottawatomie Creek his raid killed 5 settlers.
Caning of Charles Sumner
The act done by Rep. Preston Brooks (SC) as a response to an "honorless" attack of the south in a congressional speech. Opinions of act split greatly between north and south.
Scott v. Sandford
(1857) Supreme Court case in which the Court declared a slave was not a citizen and had no right to sue in a federal court. The Court went further to say that the Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional because Congress cannot restrict ownership of property.
A state constitution for Kansas that would legalize slavery in Kansas. Passed through a fraudulent election (in which both options allowed some slavery), because abolitionists refused to vote. Pres. Buchanan urged Congress to approve it, but Congress refused. A split between Douglas and Buchanan also split the Democratic party.
(1858) a series of debates over slavery and north/south conflicts to win election for Illinois senate seat.
In response to a question raised by Lincoln, Douglas stated that despite the Supreme Courts decision, slavery could be forbidden in a state by a popular vote of the states inhabitants (popular sovereignty). This statement won Douglas the senate seat, but alienated southern democrats to his demise in the 1860 presidential race.
Leader of the Harper's Ferry, VA raid of a federal arsenal and attempted slave uprising.
The location (and name of) an abolitionist raid of a federal arsenal and attempted slave uprising in 1859. The raid was stopped short by Gen. Lee. Raised tensions between north and south.
The action taken by South Carolina in response to Lincoln's victory in the 1860 presidential election, which they believed signaled the downfall of slavery.
Confederacy (Confederate States of America)
New country formed by southern states as they seceded from the Union.
Location of a Civil War battle in which the North badly underestimates the strength the the southern generals Beauregard and "Stonewall" Jackson. A model battle of the North, with more men, guns, and ammunition, losing to the south with better generals, knowledge of the land, and a marshal culture.
railroads and rivers
man-made and natural routes of transportation that gave the north a large advantage fighting against the south.
The location of a battle in the deep south in which the north captures a city and establishes a bulkhead in the Gulf of Mexico.
(1862) Gen. Lee's farthest push north which led to huge casualties on both sides. Created fear in the north.
(1863) A speech given by Lincoln that signaled a turning point in the Civil War.
(1863) A speech in which Lincoln galvanizes support from foreign countries by changing the war to a fight for abolition. Lincoln announces the freedom of slaves in "rebelling" states, not wanting to anger the slaves states that remained in the Union.
(1863) Location of a major battle near the end of the Civil War. Through many mistakes by the south, and lucky actions by the north, the north maintains a set of hills and forces the southern forces back.
A speech given by Lincoln after a major battle in which he unifies the north by saying all the men cannot have died for nothing. Inspires Gen. Grant to change tactics to fighting a war of attrition.
War of attrition
Type of war used by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in which the North recognized it would lose more men than the south, but the south would still be hurt more in the long run. Led to many devastating battles, and burning of cities, ports, and supplies in the south.
Sherman's March to the Sea
An action taken near the end of the Civil war in which the north takes out anger on the south by marching in a wide sweep towards the Atlantic, burning everything in their path.
Appomattox Court House
(1865) Location of the signing of treaties (?) officially ending the Civil War.
Political era from approx. 1865-1877.
Strong President who might have led a successful reconstruction had he not been killed.
President to take power unexpectedly during the early years of reconstruction. Very soft on the south and as a result nearly stripped of power by Congress.
Lincoln's plan to forgive the south and make it very easy to reunite the Union by requiring a very small percentage of citizens in each state to vote for returning to the Union.
A bill passed by Congress before the wars end that would require a clear majority of citizens to favor returning to the Union for a successful vote, ban former Confederates from any state or federal office, and force new state constitutions. Lincoln vetoes the bill, but many of the aspects are passed later, during Congressional Reconstruction.
Ku Klux Klan
One of many examples of southern whites' resistance to reconstruction. A group that sabotaged reconstruction efforts through intimidation and violence.
Laws created in Souther states that limited the rights of freed slaves. Including: voting regulations, marriage regulations, limited trial rights, and vagrancy laws.
Committee of Reconstruction (Joint Committee of Fifteen)
A congressional group created to focus on reconstruction. Very powerful during the era of Congressional Reconstruction. Major members included Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner.
A congressional leader of reconstruction who believed heavily in strict treatment of the south.
Republican senator who played a large role in congressional reconstruction. Before the war, had an unfortunate incident with Rep. Preston Brooks (SC).
An organization formed as part of Congressional Reconstruction. Often managed by the Union military presence in the south, the organization served as a police force, center of governance, and provided aid to freed slaves.
Constitutional amendment made at the end of the Civil War (1865) to officially end slavery in the United States.
Constitutional Amendment made as part of congressional reconstruction. Provided clear terms for re-admittance of southern states into the Union, enfranchisement of African Americans, and the Due Process Clause.
A somewhat redundant Constitutional Amendment that clarified the illegality of denying voting rights to anyone based on race.
A term used by southerners to describe white northerners who came to the south during reconstruction. Often claimed that they came for power, or political position over the southerners.
A term used by southerners to describe pro-northern whites who gained control of the southern state governments as part of the reconstruction efforts.
President Johnson was nearly ______ by Congress, who wanted a much harsher form a reconstruction than Johnson wanted. This was done through political maneuvering involving the Tenure of Office Act.
One of many scandals that plagued Grant's presidency. This included Congress taking bribes to not regulate land being sold for railroads.
A scandal that occurred during Grant's presidency. This included a congressional vote to double to presidential salary and increase the congressional pay by 25%.
Ulysses S. Grant
A president who oversaw reconstruction fatigue set into the US. Although he was elected to two terms, his presidency was wracked with scandals.
Rutherford B. Hayes
President who won a heavily disputed election and was selected through a political agreement made by the leaders of the Republican and Democratic parties.
Samuel J. Tilden
A presidential candidate who won the popular vote (and likely the electoral vote), but through claimed fraud, ended up losing the election.
Compromise of 1877
An agreement that gave Hayes (Rep.) the presidency, but in which the Democrats were offered the end of military occupation in the south, the end of the Freedmen's Bureau, and allowed southerners (former confederates) to retake positions of power.
Jim Crow Laws
As the reconstruction era ended and the north moved out of regulating the south, these laws were created by southern states to replace the "Black Codes".
An economic method of serfdom that the south implemented to replaced slavery.
Elected president of the Confederate States
Members of a movement who formed political groups around agricultural communities. They fought for the economic concerns of workers and farmers over the power of the emerging larger companies.
An economic term describes the fact that currency reflected the value of a certain metal in the federal reserve. This limited the amount of currency that the government was able to print.
The metal that populists wanted the government to mint as currency to inflate the economy with more money which would go into the hands of more people.
Rutherford B. Hayes
President who failed to reform the civil service "spoils system" because of the power of the "Stalwarts" in Congress.
James (A.) Garfield
A President who wins the election as a compromise between the "Stalwarts" (patronage party) and "Half-breeds" (reform wing). Election represents a clear split (North/South) of Republicans and Democrats.
Chester (A.) Arthur
President who reformed civil service into a merit based system.
Act in 1883 that created the Civil Service Commission.
Civil Service Commission
A government agency formed under Arthur that would oversee the government's civil service jobs.
First Democratic president to take power after the civil war.
President known as a reformer during his governance of NY. He cleaned up NYC through the Tammany Hall (governor's office) political machine.
Interstate Commerce Act
Act in 1887 that regulated the railroad system for fair treatment. First federal regulation of a big corporation.
As international commerce increased, American corporations lobbied the government for a protective legislation for american economic powers.
President who oversaw McKinley Tariff, Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Sherman anti-trust act.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
In exchange for passing the McKinley Tariff, the Republicans agreed to pass this act which allowed the government to buy silver in order to begin coining silver currency.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Legislation that prohibited monopolies. The republicans did not enforce the act when they were in power.
People's Party (Populists)
Party formed from the remnants of the Farmer's Alliance and Grange movement. A progressive party, who wanted unions in rural and agricultural areas.
William Jennings Bryan
The leader of the Populist's split from Democratic party; the "silverites". Fought for the Gold Standard Act, demanded "free silver" and made the "Cross of Gold" speech.
Spanish American War
A short war in which the US implemented the ideas of the Roosevelt Corollary. The US takes power over many countries in the Caribbean.
Explosion of Maine
The event that gave the US a reason to begin fighting the Spanish American War.
Leader of the Rough Riders who captured San Juan Hill.
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan
A militarist/expansionist who wrote a book and was a strong supporter of naval power and US influence over the countries of the Americas.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican Senator of MA. who was a major presence in the Senate and a strong supporter of a bigger military presence of the US.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy who wrote a Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that stated the US's ability (right) to intervene when and where it wanted in the American continents.
Document that regarded a previous Doctrine, and gave the US the right to intervene in the actions of the countries in the Americas.
Splendid Little War
Nickname given to the Spanish American War by Secretary of State John Hay.
An amendment (1898) that refuted annexation but allowed US intervention in foreign countries.
An Amendment (1901) that required the Cuban constitution to include the acceptance of any US intervention in order to end the military rule.
Lone Star Republic
Territory created as a result of Gen. Santa Anna's breakaway from Mexico.
The idea that the US had a god given right to expand into any American frontier. Used as propaganda to support the war with Mexico over additional land.
Mexican American War
War in which the US attempted to move the US-Mexico borders further south and acquire more land.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty in 1848 that brought the Mexican American War to an end.
The river in Mexico at which the United States wanted the border. Mexico wanted the border further north.
How the US acquired more land (Arizona and New Mexico) a few years after the end of the Mexican American War.
Leader of Hawaii who is overthrown by American sugar barons that allowed for the annexation of Hawaii.
A sugar baron who led the overthrow of the Hawaiian Queen and lobbied the US to annex Hawaii to aid business.
Location of the US's first overseas protectorate.
An uprising of the Chinese people against their government for supporting the US economic influence over China. The US helps the Chinese government put down the uprising.
President who was very inline with Mahan's expansionism. Nicknamed a "jingo" and supported the idea of fighting any fight that can be won.
War in which two Asian powers fight and the underdog wins. The US helps with peace treaty to neutralize both powers and make sure neither is a threat to the US.
A major economic property that was acquired through military aid of Panama against Colombia.
The idea of sending American troops in order to influence diplomacy.
Taft's version of diplomacy in which the US would send aid and promote US big business in order to influence diplomacy.
William (Howard) Taft
A president, not known as one of the US. most memorable presidents. A very large man, a slow and deliberate politician. His administration was riddled with corruption.
How the government was seen by the Progressive party, a view that united some disparate groups.
Bob La Follette
Rep. Senate from Wisconsin. A major Progressive in the Congress who supported many of the progressive movements.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
A government commission established as part of the Sherman anti-trust act that was greatly expanded under Roosevelt to better regulate big business.
Department of Commerce
Government department established to investigate "bad" trusts
A system that skews politics and allows one party to control city governments. Corrected through electoral reform.
Government reform that shifted to popular votes instead of state legislature choosing senators for US Congress (17th amendment). Also added many methods for state citizens to vote directly for more things.
A group across Dem./Rep. party lines who supported political reform, business regulations, working rights, etc.
Open Door Policy
Policy that opens trade to all countries to trade freely in the Chinese ports. Allows the US to gain a foothold in Chinese trade.
Constitutional amendment that shifted to vote for US senators from governments to a popular vote.
A group of journalists and writers concerned with political, and corporate corruption and food and work safety. Creates FDA, Pure Food and Drug Act, and Meat Inspection Act.
Muckraker; Shame of the Cities; worried about Electoral reform
Muckraker; History of Standard Oil; Business reform
Muckraker; The Jungle; Unclean Food; socialist
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
Act inspired by the muckrakers that required government assurance that food and medicine was what it claimed to be.
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
Act inspired by the muckrakers that required the inspection of food by the federal government.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA, 1890)
Group fighting for womans suffrage.
President associate with the Square Deal.
A battle between progressives and big business led to a plan by TR to arbitrate between Union Mine Workers (UMW) and business leaders. TR forces business to accept stronger regulations to protect workers.
TR's plan to prevent companies (many that he doesn't like) from forming monopolies. (ex. Northern Securities Co.)
US Forest Service
Government created by TR, first led by Gifford Pinchot. Lead the conservation movement.
First head of the US Forest Service.
A group of the temperance movement in support of prohibition.