Psychology Final

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predict the future

The problem with common sense is that it is "after the fact." In other words, common sense does not help us:

range

Because a few extreme scores can create a deceptively large estimate of variation, _________ offers only a crude estimate of the variation in a data set.

it suggests hypotheses for future study

One strength of the case study method is that:

dependent variable

In an experiment that examines the effect of sleep deprivation on mental alertness, mental alertness is the:

collectivism

Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value

a heavy drinker or an alcoholic

An infant is most likely to be at risk for mental retardation if her mother is:

about 1,000 per second

Twenty-five-year-old Jonah has decided to ask his doctor about sperm cell production. He is wondering whether his rate of production is within normal range. For a man his age, his doctor will likely tell him that the average rate of production is:

the cells of the zygote begin to differentiate

You just found out that your sister conceived about seven days ago. You rush to find a book on pregnancy so that you can learn more about it. What will the book say is happening around the seventh day of pregnancy?

more self-assured, popular, and independent

Early maturation in boys tends to produce boys who are:

conventional

David is 13 years old and is telling his mother that she should not drive too fast and make a complete stop at the light in order to avoid getting a ticket. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates _____________ morality.

3

Alzheimer's disease strikes ___ percent of the world's population by age 75.

sensorimotor

According to Piaget, during this stage of cognitive development, object permanence and stranger anxiety are the developmental phenomena that occur.

the unconditioned stimulus

Jane had Leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The nausea from the chemotherapy is:

negative punishment

Nannette's daughter refused to brush her teeth and threw her toys across the room. Nannette gave her daughter a 20-minute time-out. This is an example of:

fixed-ratio

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a _____________ schedule of reinforcement.

operant; respondent

__________________ behavior operates on the environment, whereas, ________________ behavior occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

source misattribution

When you recall an imagined event as something that you directly experienced, or something that really happened to you, you are best illustrating:

short-term memory

Millie has been having difficulties remembering what people have just said. She is unable to follow along during her favorite television shows. Millie is having difficulty with her:

semantic encoding

Although Jordan cannot recall the exact words of a poem he heard recently, he clearly remembers the poem's meaning. This best illustrates the importance of

long-term potentiation

Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?

retroactive interference

_______________ occurs when something you learn now interferes with your ability to recall something you learned earlier.

leptin

______________ is a protein secreted by fat cells and when abundant causes the brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.

does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them

One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it:

food deprivation; hunger

Need is to _____________ as drive is to _____________

decreases; increases

The secretion of PYY ___________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ___________ hunger

erotic plasticity

Women, more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in:

industrial-organizational

Dr. Grimm has been hired as a consultant to determine the reasons for the loss of morale, absenteeism, low productivity, and increased work accidents. She is this type of psychologist:

ghrelin

Cathy went through gastric bypass surgery for her severe obesity. This has helped to lessen her appetite, and lose weight because her remaining stomach produced less:

Cannon-Bard Theory

Alone in the woods, you hear a noise. You think you see a bear coming towards you. Your heart starts pounding and, at the same time, you realize you are afraid. This sequence of events is best explained by which theory of emotion?

James-Lange Theory

Alone in the woods, you hear a noise. You think you see a bear coming towards you. Your heart starts pounding and then, a moment later, you realize how frightened you are. This sequence of events is best explained by which theory of emotion?

see an oncoming car; heart pounds and, at the same time, fear is experienced

According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, which of the following is the correct sequence of events when a car drives directly toward us and we experience emotion?

see an oncoming car; heart pounds; experience fear

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is the correct sequence of events when a car drives directly toward us and we experience emotion?

our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that our experience of emotion:

right frontal lobe

A person who is depression prone has increased activity in his:

William James

______________ suggested that we can stimulate the subjective experience of cheerfulness simply by acting as if we are already cheerful.

schizoid personality disorder

Walter keeps to himself at work, he is quiet, has a number of odd collections, some even call him eccentric. He has only one friend that comes over to drink with him. Walter would be considered to have:

a persistently sad mood and low energy level

A dysthymic disorder is most likely characterized by:

Clozaril

You have placed your patient on an antipsychotic which requires regular blood tests to determine any abnormal changes on white blood cells. This medication is:

behavior modification

This therapy is empirically supported for treating bed-wetting

Clozaril

Which of the following drugs sometimes helps people with positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

people often enter therapy in crisis, and these crises often pass without professional help

It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy because:

biomedical therapy

_______________ is a type of treatment that physically changes the brain's functioning

Depakote

John is a 28-year-old male who suffers from bipolar disorder. He does not like lithium because of the side effects. His doctor prescribes this medication, originally used to treat epilepsy. This medication is:

transference

When a patient in psychoanalysis begins to have feelings toward their therapist such as love or hatred and those feelings are linked to other relationships they have had or have, they are experiencing:

cognitive therapist

You recognize that depressed people do not exhibit the same self-serving bias common in non-depressed people. You are most likely a:

overestimate its effectiveness

Delores has been in therapy for two years, but her last session is today. If you ask her next month how effective her psychotherapy was, she is likely to:

antipsychotic

Tardive dyskinesia is associated with the long-term use of which type of drugs?

cognitive dissonance theory

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student, despite his doubts about her competence. After writing the letter, he began to develop a more favorable attitude about the student's abilities. Which theory best explains why?

group polarization

A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates:

deindividuation

The students at the University charged the field after the game in response to their team's loss. They vandalized the opposing team's field and the police had to be called in. This behavior is best understood in terms of:

Milgram

His experiments on obedience at Yale University are some of the most famous and involved deception.

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