De jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
De facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens although not required by law
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. He opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Little Rock Nine
The school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
A ride made by civil rights workers to desegregate public facilities, such as bus terminals or lunch counters.
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
United States civil rights worker in Mississippi
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
tactic in which senators take the floor, begin talking, and refuse to stop talking to permit a vote on a measure
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Fannie Lou Hamer
spokesperson for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention
Voting Rights Act
1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965)
Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites