Ch. 6: Religious Specialists

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Shaman

A part-time religious specialist who receives his or her power directly from the spirit world and acquires status and the ability to do things through personal communication with the supernatural

Priest

A full-time religious specialists who is associated with formalized religious institutions

Healer

a religious specialist who concentrates in healing

diviner

A religious specialists who specializes in divination

Central Siberia

The word shaman originates from the Tungus language of BLANK BLANK

independent

Unlike priests, who are full time community based specialists, shamans are usually part-time BLANK contractors

personal

The relationship between a shaman and the community is a BLANK one

charisma, ability to heal

The authority of a shaman lies in his or her BLANK and BLANK BLANK BLANK.

true

The task of being a shaman is so difficult and demanding, and the shaman is so marginalized that individuals do not seek a call from the spirits. True or False?

Shaman

the period of apprenticeship may include period of seclusion, fasting and the taking of hallucinogens, but the main goal is to learn to enter into and control the experience of an altered state of consciousness. These characteristics belongs to which specialist?

False ( "does not lie" instead of "lies", "but" instead of "not" )

The success of a shaman lies in her ability to memorize and perform rituals, not in her ability to successfully establish contact and some measure of control over the supernatural. true or False?

soul loss

In Shamanism, illness is often conceived of as as resulting from BLANK BLANK, and the shaman is called to recapture the patient's soul by means of a mystical flight.

Axis Mundi

A central axis that is seen as linking the three different levels of the world, the central world containing humans and the supernatural layers above and below it.

Axis Mundi

Shamans are seen as able to travel between the BLANK BLANK layers of world and the central axis often represented by a ladder, pole, or tree in shamanic rituals.

transformation

The shaman's ability to make the soul journey to the supernatural realms linked to his or her special abilities at BLANK, which includes that into animals or other beings, or even gender.

False (They are viewed with some level of suspicion since shamans are also capable of using their power to create illnesses)

Shamans are always trusted within their community to cure and heal. True or False?

Siberian

In BLANK shamanism, a deal is made among the animal spirits and shamans to help ensure a successful hunt: the animal spirits will supply humans with food, and the humans will eventually supply the spirits with human flesh and blood ( this is one cause of human sickness and death ). To limit the amount of human death and sickness, a shaman can create a pact with the animal spirits through a special relationship with the daughter of the elk or reindeer spirit.

True

In the Yakut religion, there is a combination of Christian and native shamanic rituals and beliefs. true or false?

Christian Cross, tree

The Yakut who follow Kyta Baaly, wear a small "sacred world path" pin or pendant that combines a BLANK BLANK with a BLANK symbol. This is an example of a revivalistic movement.

False (also in industrialized societies, like in Korea)

Shamanism is only found in small-scale societies. true or false?

women, men

Today most Shamans are BLANK in Korea, whereas before it was mainly BLANK that held this position

psychological stress

In Korea, women who have suffered some type of BLANK BLANK are especially vulnerable to be selected as shamans by the spirits

maum

Soul is called BLANK in Korean.

sinbyong

The sign that a particular Korean woman has been selected is manifested as possession illness or BLANK. The individual is ill until the individual accepts the call of the spirits

Pentecostal

BLANK healers are an example of a shaman found in the United States. They report having been called by the supernatural, in this case God, and describe prophetic dreams and visions. They also used an altered state of consciousness to directly contact and experience the supernatural for healing another individual.

tensegrity

a technique of body movements that aims to increase awareness of the body's energy levels; developed by Carlos Castaneda

Core shamanism

Michael Harner's concept of the core and nearly universal methods of shamanism without a specific cultural context

neoshamanism

a modern spiritual practice that draws on some concepts and practices of traditional shamanism, but is usually used as a method for improving an individual's life

False (there are many criticisms)

Neoshamanism is accepted by everyone. True or False?

False (will not contain both)

Generally speaking, a society will contain both priests and shamans. True or false?

True

Although a priest may connect with the supernatural through visions and trances, this ability is not as important as the priest's ability to memorize and perform rituals in the proper manner. True or false?

complex, priestly, societies

These BLANK of BLANK BLANKS forms the basis of Zuni religious and political organization

kivas

The six BLANKS are associated with the six cardinal directions, which include the familiar N,S,E,W and zenith overhead and nadir underground. (Zuni; American southwest)

prestige, political authority

the accumulation of ritual knowledge over time is associated with BLANK and BLANK BLANK (zuni priests)

True

Zuni political authority is vested in a council of priests led by the priests of the sun and keeper of the calendar. Their major concern is with religious matters, such as selecting some f the participants in certain rituals, the placement of occasional rituals into the ritual calendar, and the reaction of the religious organization to natural disasters. True or false?

True

Okinawan's current belief system combines the belief of animism and shamanism with the influence of Shinto, Buddhism, and Taoism. True or false?

supernatural beings

Kami, in Okinawa, stands for BLANK BLANKS

priestesses, shaman

The two main specialists in Okinawa are BLANKS , kaminchu, and BLANKLIKE practicioners called yuta.

True

The Okinawan priestesses reported minor illnesses that generally involved some sort of bleeding or other bodily rupture. In contrast, the illnesses reported by the shamans involved serious psychological, physical, or social dysfunction. True or false?

clowns, shamans

In New York a program that involves BLANKS has emerged and now is being practice in other places around the world. It is said that they play a similar role as BLANKS.

complex hierarchical

Religious organizations associated with nation-states or multistate organizations are characterized by many types of priests organized in BLANK BLANK organizations, such as those of the Roman Catholic Church.

asceticism

The Orthodox Church has a strong tradition of BLANK where individuals separate themselves from the everyday world and spend their lives as monks and nuns.

rituals

orthodox priests participate in a wide variety of activities including the education and counseling, but the focus of their responsibilities is the performance of BLANKS

False (They do often refer to them as healers)

The term healer does not often apply to priest and shamans. True or false?

herbalist

One type of healer, that are specialist in the use of plant and other material as cures.

Prophet

a mouthpiece of the gods. It is their role to communicate the words and will of the gods to his or her community and to act as an intermediary between the gods and the people.

true

The role of the prophet is a separate one from shamans and priests. true or false?

True

Handsome Lake was a prophet of the Seneca tribe during the time when the reservation system was first imposed. He died, but then revived and said that he has a vision of three messengers who had revealed to him God's will and told him that he was to carry his message back to his people. His teachings continue to spread and is the foundation for the Longhouse religion true or false?

Ngundeng

One example of a Nuer prophet is BLANK. He was born with the power to make contact with the supernatural power. he was possessed by the God Deng, and began to make prophecies. 100 years after his death, he is playing an important role in the movement for an independent state in southern Sudan.

Priest, prescribed

The BLANK acts as representative of the community to the deity or deities and is responsible for the performance of BLANK rituals.

Qin

Dynasty that lasted from 256 - 222 BC

true

Qin Dynasty: state language facilitated communication. True or False?

true

the education system is in favor of Qin Dynasty. true or false?

legalists

The philosophical ideology of Chin Dynasty was of the BLANKS. Ch'in dynasty had very harsh laws and had a large gov't bureaucracy which would act as an example for subsequent dynasties.

False (not began it; he just unified the great wall)

Qin-shi-huang-ti's dynasty built the great wall. True or false?

first emperor

"Shi Huang ti" means BLANK BLANK

false

The great wall was built to represent great strength and unity; built to keep out the Hun. true or false?

Sima Qian

historian active during the Han dynasty. He described details of Qin's palace.

False (everything is correct, except the faces part. All the faces are actually unique)

Tomb of Qin Shi Huang Ti is 60 square kilometers. It has an eternal imperial bodyguard. More than 6,000 figures discovered so far. Although, all the faces on the soldiers are the same. True or false?

Han

The BLANK dynasty came about after the conquest of the Qin-Shi-Huang-Ti's son, by a peasant named Liu-Chi Liu Bang, rebel leader of the bandits.

3rd

The Han Dynasty began in the BLANK century BC

false (no guarantee)

It was guaranteed a social position during the Han Dynasty. True or false?

narrative pictorial

The art of the Han dynasty consisted of BLANK BLANK art. Also, there was more of a diversification of subject matter in art.

recommendations

A higher social position was attained by BLANKs from those in higher position

False (intensified, not "diminished")

During the Han dynasty, filial piety (respect for one's parents, elders, and superior;obedience (morally binding); deference to authority) was diminished. true or false?

Han

Paper invented in the BLANK dynasty

Han

Highly socialistic economy; complex bureaucracy, gov't control of liquor, iron, bronze, etc. all paid for by taxes. There was also a school system which spread Confucius propaganda. Birth no longer guaranteed high gov't position. Narrative and pictorial art. highly educated, literate individuals. These characteristics belong to what dynasty?

false (it is the other way around)

Confucianism was more of an individualist philosophy, whereas Taoism is more of an collectivism philosophy. True or false?

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