Anatomy Final

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phospholipid

The predominant lipid in the cell membrane is a

the same atomic number but differ in their mass numbers

Isotopes of the same element have

Two amino acids are bonded together to form a dipeptide

Which of the following is a synthesis reaction?

hydrolysis

Reactions that use water to split molecules apart are called _______ reactions

600

If a mRNA molecule is 1800 nucleotides (bases) in length, this molecule will contain _____ codons

monosaccharides

Large carbohydrates are formed from smaller units called

Fatty acid B is saturated

Fatty acid A has 10 double covalent bonds scattered throughout its carbon chain while fatty acid B has only single covalent bonds between the carbons in its chain.

are the building blocks of nucleic acids

Nucleotides

histology.

The study of tissues is

armpit

The axillary region is the

calf.

The sural region is the

hollow behind the knee

The popliteal region is the

stratified squamous epithelium

The epidermis of the skin is composed of

Golgi apparatus

Which of the following cell organelles would be most important in secretory epithelial cells?

tight junction.

The type of cell connection that serves as a permeability barrier is a

transitional epithelium

What type of epithelial tissue is found in the urinary bladder?

adipocytes

What type of cells contain large amounts of lipids?

contractility

Muscle tissue is characterized by its

desquamation.

The sloughing off of older cells from the surface of the skin is called

stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum

Which of the following represents the correct order of the layers of the epidermis from the deepest to the most superficial?

papillary layer

This is the dermal layer closest to the epidermis

stratum basale

The epidermal layer that is present in the nail bed and the nail matrix is the

surrounds each muscle fiber

Endomysium is a delicate network of loose connective tissue that

2, 3, 1, 4

List the following structures in order from smallest to largest. (1) muscle fiber (2) myofilament (3) myofibril (4) muscle fasciculus

epimysium

Which of the following connective tissue layers is outside all the others?

globular (G) actin

Which of the following is part of a thin myofilament?

has a calcium-binding site

Troponin

thick myofilaments

Which of the following is composed of myosin molecules?

actin myofilaments

The active sites to which cross-bridges attach are found on the

myosin heads

ATPase is found in

A band

The region of the sarcomere that contains both actin and myosin myofilaments is called the

False

Both actin and myosin myofilaments shorten during contraction. (T/F)

contain strands of fibrous actin

Actin myofilaments

5, 3, 2, 4, 1

Arrange the events of synaptic transmission in correct sequence. (1) sodium ions diffuse into the cell and cause a local potential (2) neurotransmitter binds with receptor on postsynaptic cell (3) neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft (4) membrane permeability to sodium ions on postsynaptic cell increases (5) action potential causes release of neurotransmitter

voltage-gated ion channels

Channels that open or close in response to changes in the electrical charge or voltage across the plasma membrane are called

acetylcholine.

Synaptic vesicles in the neuromuscular junction contain

continuous stimulation of the postsynaptic membrane

Lack of acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft would result in

conduct action potentials deep into the muscle cell

T tubules

stores calcium ions

The sarcoplasmic reticulum

1, 3, 4, 2, 5

Arrange the following list of biochemical events in the correct sequence. (1) An action potential is conducted deep into the muscle fiber by the T tubule. (2) Calcium ions bind to troponin. (3) The membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum become more permeable to calcium ions. (4) Calcium ions diffuse into the sarcoplasm around the myofibril. (5) The troponin-tropomyosin complex moves exposing active sites.

twitch

Which of the following would occur as a result of a single muscle contraction?

a single muscle fiber and a single motor unit

Which of the following will respond to a threshold stimulus with an all-or-none contraction?

complete tetanus

A condition in which stimuli occur so rapidly that there are no intervening relaxations between contractions is called

the muscle produces increasing tension as it shortens

Concentric contractions occur when

depletion of ATP reserves

Which of the following would contribute to muscular fatigue in the muscle fiber?

Schwann cells form a myelin sheath around only one axon, while oligodendrocytes extend processes to surround several axons at once.

Schwann cells differ from oligodendrocytes in which of the following ways?

both anaerobic and aerobic respiration

Which type of respiration produces ATP molecules?

aerobic respiration

Which type of respiration occurs in the mitochondria?

inability of the muscle fiber to respond to nervous stimulation

Curare blocks acetylcholine receptors at the motor end plate. This would result in

conveys action potentials to the CNS

The sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system

ganglia

Cell bodies of the peripheral nervous system are located in

12; 31

There are _____ pairs of cranial nerves and _____ pairs of spinal nerves

cell bodies or soma

Protein synthesis in neurons occurs in

areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum

Nissl bodies are

are the input part of the neuron

Dendrites

False

Neuroglia produce action potentials for skeletal muscles (T/F)

astrocyte.

A neuroglial cell that is a major component of the blood-brain barrier is the

ependymal cells

Overproduction of cerebrospinal fluid could be the result of overactivity of the

are phagocytic cells in the CNS

Microglia

oligodendrocyte

Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder in which myelin sheaths in the CNS are destroyed. Which of the following neuroglial cells is being damaged in multiple sclerosis?

hyperpolarize.

Mr. Miller has been hospitalized for the flu. The flu virus increases membrane permeability to potassium. You would expect his cells to

autonomic

A nerve, which causes the smooth muscle of a blood vessel wall to constrict, contains __________ neurons

3, 1, 4, 2

Arrange the following in correct sequence:
(1) autonomic ganglia and ganglionic synapse
(2) synapse with target tissues
(3) preganglionic neuron
(4) postganglionic neuron

short postganglionic axons near the organs they innervate

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by

excitatory

When acetylcholine binds with nicotinic receptors, the response is

parasympathetic blocking agent

Atropine causes the pupil of the eye to dilate by blocking the effect of muscarinic receptors. This means atropine is a(n)

increased parasympathetic responses and increased sympathetic responses

When a person consumes a substantial amount of nicotine, the response is

muscarinic blocking agent

Acetylcholine will cause the pupil of the eye to constrict. A drug acts on receptors for acetylcholine to cause the pupils of the eye to dilate. Nicotine does not bind to receptors in smooth muscle cells of the iris. Therefore, the drug which causes the pupils to dilate is a

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Sympathetic stimulation of the postganglionic cells of the adrenal medulla causes the release of

interfere with the ability to respond to neurotransmitter.

Damage to a postsynaptic membrane would

electrical

Gap junctions are functional __________ synapses

spatial summation occurs

When two action potentials arrive simultaneously at two different presynaptic terminals that synapse with the same postsynaptic neuron

fall

Initiating the withdrawal reflex in both legs at the same time would cause one to

False

The posterior horn of the cord contains the cell bodies of motor neurons (T/F)

affect sensory projection to the cerebral cortex

Injury to the thalamus would

vestibulocochlear (VIII)

Which of the following cranial nerves is exclusively sensory?

cutaneous sensations on the opposite side of the body below the level of injury

Lesions on one side of the spinal cord cut the lateral spinothalamic tract of the anterolateral system and eliminate

muscle spindles

Specialized muscle fibers associated with detection of muscle length are

maintains control of unconscious movements

The extrapyramidal system (indirect pathway)

the third and fourth ventricle

The cerebral aqueduct connects

perception

A conscious awareness of stimuli received by sensory receptors

proprioceptors

Provides information about body position

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