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Testicles

-The male gonads
-Combined endocrine and exocrine glands that produce sex hormones and sperm
-Each is oval and slightly flattened

Scrotum

-A pouch of skin, muscle, and fibrous CT which holds the testes
-The skin has sebaceous glands, sparse hair, right sensory innervation, and somewhat darker pigmentation than skin elewhere
-Divided into right and left compartments by an internal median septum, which protects each testis from infections of the other one

Epididymis

-Site of sperm maturation and storage
-Adheres to the posterior side of the testis, and consists of a clublike head at the superior end, a long middle body, and a slender tail at its inferior end
-Contains a single coiled duct embedded in CT, which reabsorbs about 90% of the fluid secreted by the testis
-Sperm are physiologically immature when then leave the testes, but mature as they travel through the head and body of the epididymis
-After 20 days they are stored in the tail and in the adjacent portion of the ductus deferens

Ductus (Vas) Deferens

-A muscular tube about 45 cm long and 2.5 mm in diameter
-Passes upward through the spermatic cord and inguinal canal, and enters the pelvic cavity
-There, it turns medially and approaches the urinary bladder
-After passing between the bladder and ureter, the ducts turns downward behind the bladder and widens into a terminal ampulla
-The ductus deferens ends by uniting with the duct of the seminal vesicle, a gland considered later
-It has a very narrow lumen and a thick wall of smooth muscle well innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers

Urethra (penis)

-The glans is the expanded head at the distal end of the penis with the external urethral orafice at its tip

Spermatic Cord

-A bundle of fibrous CT containing the ductus deferens (a sperm duct), blood and lymphatic vessels, and testicular nerves
-Passes upward behind and superior to the testis, where it is easily palpated through the skin of the scrotum
-Continues across the anterior side of the pubis and into a 4 cm long inguinal canal, which leads through the muscles of the groin and emerges into the pelvic cavity

Semen 715

-A complex mixture of sperm and glandular secretions
-About 10% of it consists of sperm and fluids from the spermatic ducts
-30% is a thin, milky fluid from the prostate
-60% is a viscous, yellowish fluid from the seminal vesicles

(Seminal vesicles

-A pair of glands posterior to the urinary bladder
-One is associated with each ductus deferens
-Has a CT capsule and underlying layer of smooth muscle
-The secretory portion is a very convoluted duct with numerous branches that form a complex labyrinth
-Empties into the ejaculatory duct

Prostate gland

-A median structure that surrounds the urethra and ejaculatory ducts immediately inferior to the urinary bladder
-A composite of 30-50 compound tubuloacinar glands enclosed in a single fibrous capsule. These empty into the urethra through about 20 pores in the urethral wall
-The stoma of the prostate consists of CT and smooth muscle, like that of the seminal vesicles
-The source of the 2 most common urogenital dysfunctions in older men

Cowper's glands)

-Named for their position near a dilated bulb at the inner end of the penis and their association with the penile urethra
-Brownish, spherical glands about 1 cm in diameter, with a 2.5 cm duct to the urethra
-During sexual arousal, produces a clear slippery fluid that lubricates the head of the penis in preparation for intercourse
-The fluid protects the sperm by neutralizing the acidity of residual urine in the urethra

Ovaries

-Female gonads
-Produce egg cells (ova) and sex hormones
-Almond-shaped organs nestled in a depression of the posterior pelvic wall called the ovarian fossa
-Divided into central medulla (fibrous CT occupied by the principal arteries and veins of the ovary) and outer cortex (site of ovarian follicles)

Follicles

-In the cortex, each of which consists of one developing ovum surrounded by numerous small follicular cells
-Eggs are released one at a time by the bursting of the follicles (ovulation)

Uterine tube 723

-Receives ovulated oocytes
-A ciliated canal about 10 cm long leading from the ovary to the uterus
-At the distal (ovarian) end, it flared into a trumpet-shaped infundibulum with feathery projections called fimbriae
-The wall of the tube is well endowed with smooth muscle
-Its mucosa is highly folded into longitudinal ridges and has an epithelium of ciliated cells and smaller number of secretory peg cells
-The cilia beat toward the uterus and, with the help of muscular contractions of the tube, convey the egg in that direction

Uterus

-A thick muscular chamber that opens into the rood of the vagina and usually tilts forward over the urinary bladder
-Harbors the fetus and provides it with a source of nutrition (the placenta, composed partially of uterine tissue) and expel the fetus at the end of gestation (pregnancy)

(Cervix

-A narrow inferior end of the uterus

Endometrium

-The inner lining of the uterus, or mucosa
-Has simple columnar epithelium, compound tubular glands, and a stroma populated by leukocytes, macrophages, and other cells
-The superficial half to 2/3 of it, called the stratum functionalis, is shed in each menstrual period
-When pregnancy occurs, it is the site of attatchment of the embryo and forms the maternal part of the placenta

Myometrium

-Constitutes most of the wall
-Composed mainly of bundles of smooth muscle that sweep downward from the fundus and spiral around the body of the uterus
-Less muscular and more fibrous near the cervix
-Produces the labor contractions that help expel the fetus

Perimetrium)

-External serosa
-Composed of simple squamous epithelium overlying a thin layer of areolar tissue

Vagina

-A tube about 8-10 cm long that allows for the discharge of menstrual fluid, receipt of the penis and semen, and birth of a baby
-The wall is thin but very distensible, consists of an outer adventitia, a middle muscularis, and an inner mucosa
-Tilts posteriorly between the urethra and rectum, the urethra is bound to its anterior wall
-Has no glands, but is lubricated by the transudation ('vaginal sweating') of serous fluid through its walls and by mucus from the cervical glands above it

(Fornix

-Blind spaces formed when the vagina extends slightly beyond the cervix

Hymen)

-At the vaginal orifice, when the mucosa folds inward and forms a membrane
-Stretches across the opening of the vagina
-Has one or more openings to allow menstrual fluid to pass, but it usually must be ruptured to allow for intercourse

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