History

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Betty Friedan's "The Feminine Mystique" told women it was best for them to stay within the stereotypical 1950s view of women.

False

By the late 1950s the Cold War had created a tripolar world.

False

In the 1950s

the United States relied on the doctrine of massive retaliation.

The effects of the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik included all of the following EXCEPT

Many Americans believed that Sputnik's inferior quality revealed American technological superiority.

In the 1950s the United States actively tried on several occasions to roll back communism in Europe.

False

During the 1950s American policy supported containment but government leaders refused to help overthrow democratically elected governments.

False

John F. Kennedy

Felt the Berlin Wall helped to calm an unstable situation.

The Viet Cong

Gained strength as insurgents in the Vietnamese countryside.

The American reaction to soviet missiles in Cuba was...

A naval "quarantine" around Cuba

The civil rights movement placed its first focus on

Achieving justice in the South.

In Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957

Federal troops ensured the safety of black students from angry white mobs.

The struggle to end segregation in public facilities began with

A bus boycott

The Warren Commission

Left many loose ends in its investigation of the Kennedy assassination.

During Freedom Summer, students marched to Washington, D.C., to protest the Vietnam War.

False

Urban renewal in the 1950s was often done at the expense of minority groups.

True

All of the following were new to consumers in the 1950s EXCEPT

mass produced bottled soft drinks such as Coca Cola.

John F. Kennedy's New Frontier focused on

creating a new era of scientific and social progress.

A major factor in Kennedy's victory in the election of 1960 was

Kennedy's charismatic charm and wit

The Limited Test Ban Treaty allowed nuclear weapons to only be tested underground.

True

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

ruled that segregated schools denied black children equal treatment under the law.

Methods used by blacks in winning the Montgomery bus strike included

The use of car pools despite police harassment

The Freedom Riders challenged segregation of interstate bus terminals.

True

The War on Poverty had little effect.

False

All of the following statements about Lyndon Johnson are true EXCEPT

he was especially knowledgeable in all aspects of American foreign policy.

"Progressive moderation," "New Republicanism," and " dynamic conservatism" were all labels for Eisenhower's domestic views.

True

The Eisenhower administration pushed for the creation of national system of interstate highways

True

The years 1950 - 1970 saw _______________ in the percentage of American women who were part of the labor force.

A steady increase

The Eisenhower administration subverted the democratically elected governments of __________ because they seemed to threaten U.S. interests.

Iran and Guatemala

In Brown, the Supreme Court ordered the immediate segregation of schools.

False

Americans in the 1950s believed in the basic strength of the United States.

True

Dwight Eisenhower was courted by both the Democrats and the Republicans as a presidential candidate, but he ultimately chose the Democrats and led them for eight years toward the political middle.

False (Eisenhower chose and served for eight years as a Republican president)

Dwight Eisenhower

accepted most of the New Deal.

The first portion of the interstate highway system opened in the state of Kansas in the year ______.

1956

Family life in the Eisenhower years departed from historic patterns.

True

In his book "The Power Elite" C. Wright Mills argued that

an interlocking alliance of the military, big business, and big government ruled the country.

The 1955 movie "Blackboard Jungle" portrayed a combination of

Juvenile delinquency and rock-and-roll

This was a popular name for the military doctrine adopted in the 1950s, whereby the United States promised to respond to any attack on itself or its allies with force, including nuclear weapons.

Massive retaliation

In the late twentieth century, few leaders were able to master both domestic policy and foreign affairs.

True

In literature, a group of writers who challenged mainstream culture were known as the

The Beats

Kennedy won the presidency over Richard Nixon in a cliffhanging election that was more about personality and style than about substance.

True

In Vietnam

the United States began backing a pro-Western government in the South in the mid-1950s.

The Cuban Missile Crisis began when

the United States discovered that the Soviet Union was installing offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba.

John Kennedy came into office a strong supporter of civil rights.

False

All of the following programs were created and passed as part of the War on Poverty EXCEPT

Alliance for Progress

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 did all of the following EXCEPT

Outlaw literacy tests

Eisenhower wanted the United States to return to the isolationism of the prewar era.

False

Credit-based consumerism was a key feature of the American economy in the 1950s.

True

Michael Harrington, C. Wright Mills, and David Riesman were all

Critics of American society

Sputnik was

The world's first artificial satellite

When Eisenhower took over in 1952, American foreign policy underwent a dramatic shift.

False

The Cold War was marked by a series of misunderstandings by both sides.

True

Kennedy beat Nixon in 1960 by performing well in the Northeast and the

South

The Bay of Pigs fiasco was an attempt to

Overthrow Fidel Castro

John Kennedy was a tepid supporter of the civil rights movement.

True

Ch 29

start

The U.S. policy of "search and destroy" during the Vietnam War

required knowing the location of enemy detachments.

Following the example of the civil rights movement, antiwar protesters grew more peaceful after 1965.

False

Students for a Democratic Society

stressed participatory democracy and grassroots action.

Mainstream feminism targeted unequal opportunity in the job market.

True

Many of the urban problems associated with the second ghettos were caused by the big city political machines.

False

The Tet Offensive

was the turning point for shifting American opinion against the Vietnam War.

President Johnson decided not to run for reelection because

he had become overwhelmed by the war and challenges within his party.

Hubert Humphrey's narrow defeat in 1968 was due, in part, to

the violence that had occurred at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

SALT decreased the number of nuclear weapons possessed by the United States and the USSR.

False

The Nixon Doctrine declared that the United States would take harsh measures against antiwar protesters.

False

Nixon's New Federalism changed the course of reform by redirecting federal funds to the suburbs.

True

The scandals that plagued the Nixon presidency began with the Watergate affair.

False

All of the following policies were advocated by President Carter EXCEPT

Stepping up defense spending

Jimmy Carter's handling of the hostage crisis in Iran boosted his standing in public opinion and nearly allowed him to beat Ronald Reagan in the 1980 presidential election.

False

AIM worked to advance the interests of

American Indians

Effects of the Vietnam War included the

erosion of the nation's confidence in its government.

Which statement about riots in urban ghettos in the 1960s is true?

The riots showed the frustrations of residents who had legitimate grievances.

The American Indian Movement sought to achieve its goals primarily through lobbying Congress.

False

The Helsinki Accords officially ended the Vietnam war.

False

In a speech in 1979, President Carter expressed that

he felt the nation was experiencing a spiritual and moral crisis

The United States attacked North Vietnam with air strikes and large-scale ground operations.

False

In 1966 and 1967, anti-war activity changed from respectful protest to direct confrontation

True

Which of the following was NOT put forward by U.S. leaders as an argument for U.S. involvement in Vietnam?

To secure vital natural resources

NOW helped give voice to the revived ___________ of the 1960s.

Feminism

The Stonewall Rebellion was a key event in the fight for the rights of Hispanics.

True

The popular culture of the late 1960s often highlighted the crime, racial violence, and poverty of America's big cities.

True

Stokely Carmichael coined the phrase

"Black Power"

__________'s stunning performance in the 1968 primary in New Hampshire set the stage for LBJ's withdrawal from the presidential race.

Eugene McCarthy

The third party candidacy of George Wallace got a substantial share of the vote in the 1968 presidential election.

True

Jimmy Carter was strong in the South in the election of 1976.

True

President Johnson's options in Vietnam were limited by the American desire to contain communism and the commitments that President Kennedy had made there.

True

Regarding Vietnam in the 1960s, President Johnson

failed to recognize the lack of support among South Vietnam's citizens for their government.

Opponents of the Vietnam War argued all of the following points EXCEPT

that the war was necessary to preserve Kennedy's legacy.

During the Vietnam War, the military draft included members of all classes and races, but those in the upper classes could avoid military duty.

True

The growth of the "Woodstock Generation" in the 1960s revealed that

a feeling of alienation existed within American society.

One factor that did NOT contribute to the growth of women's liberation was

the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.

Gay activists learned protest tactics from the civil rights and antiwar movement.

True

Events in the Watts section of Los Angeles in 1965 showed

that racial unrest could result in violent riots

Black Power meant all of these things EXCEPT

assimilating into the larger American society.

All of the following statements about the Black Panthers are true EXCEPT

they focused entirely on national, rather than local, goals.

Support for cross-town busing as a way to counter segregation in education was boosted by the peaceful process of integration in Boston schools.

False

After the Tet Offensive, a group of distinguished Cold Warriors told President Johnson that the Vietnam War could not be won on terms acceptable to Americans or America's allies

True

Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while running as a presidential candidate in the 1968.

False

In the 1968 election

Hubert Humphrey had to deal with major divisiveness within his party.

After Richard Nixon's election, it became apparent that

he did not have a secret plan to end the war.

The Khmer Rouge, which murdered millions of Cambodians in the 1970s, came to power in that country after the previous government had been destabilized by American military actions ordered by President Nixon

True

For Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, foreign policy

Required seeking a balance of power

The Watergate affair

need not have led to Nixon's resignation if he had not engaged in a cover-up.

The "Saturday Night Massacre" was an atrocity committed by U.S. troops in Vietnam.

False

Jimmy Carter won the election of 1976 because he was viewed as an alternative to Washington insiders.

True

Operation _____________ was a major step in the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam.

Rolling Thunder

The number of American troops in Vietnam peaked in

1968

Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) considered itself a "New Left."

True

Swan v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education overturned busing as a solution to de facto segregation.

False

1968 began with the Viet Cong's

Tet Offensive. (the Tet Offensive failed, but it undermined American public support for the war)

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