Social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century. Organized in 1867.
1873- at the height of Grant's power, he outlaws anything to be treated as equal to gold. Anti-bimetalism.
Assassination of Garfield
Garfield angered the Stalwarts by giving reformers most of his patronage jobs once he was elected. On July 2, 1881, he walked through Washington D.C. Train Station and was shot 2 times by a mentally unbalanced lawyer named Charles Guiteau, whom Garfield turned down for a job. He finally died from his wounds on September 19th.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
National Farmer's Alliance
Late-nineteenth century groups that worked to improve the condition of farmers in the West and the South; formed 1889
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Depression of 1893-1897
begun by Panic of 1893
Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
repealed by Cleveland in 1893 and upset farmers
Overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani
as deposed in a coup d'état led largely by American citizens who were opposed to Lili'uokalani's attempt to establish a new Constitution. The success of the coup efforts was supported by the landing of U.S. Marines, who came ashore at the request of the conspirators. The coup left the queen imprisoned at Iolani Palace under house arrest.
a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan's famous speech that criticized the monetary policy of the government for being too hard on the farmer; said in the speech that farmers were being crucified on this
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans.Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
First Open Door Notes
1899 A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out
Currency Act 1900
officially commited US to gold; set aside gold reserve to be exchanged for paper currency
Second Open Door Notes
1900 Argument made by the US not to split China up among the European powers.
a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.
Philippines Government Act
1902 federal law that established a governor and a two house legislature for the Philippines, with the governor and members of the legislature's upper house appointed by the US
A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.
French engineer who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
Wizard of Oz Allegory - Dorothy
the American people: plucky, good natured, naive
Wizard of Oz Allegory - Toto
the Prohibition (Temperance) party. Favored the bimetallic standard but like any fringe group often pulled in the wrong direction. So they got to be a dog. (Toto is a play on "teetotalers.")
Wizard of Oz Allegory - Oz
the almighty ounce (oz) of gold
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Yellow-brick Road
paved with gold bricks, leads to nowhere
Wizard of Oz Allegory - Silver Slippers
originally the property of the Wicked Witch of the East, until Dorothy drops the house on the witch. Walking on the yellowbrick road with the silver slippers represented the bimetallic standard. (MGM changed the silver slippers to the vivid (garish, even) ruby slippers to exploit the fabulous technology of Technicolor.)
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Good Witch of the North
New England, a populist stronghold
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Good Witch of the South
the South, another populist stronghold
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wicked Witch of the East
Eastern banking and industrial interests. She is killed by Dorothy's falling house because the Populists expected that the eastern industrial workers would vote Populist, but this never really happened
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wicked Witch of the West
the West was where the Populists were strongest. The only reason why the West gets a wicked witch is a) you need two bad guys to balance the two good guys, and especially, b) William McKinley was from Ohio, then thought of as a western state. (I guess.) The wicked witch is sometimes identified directly with President McKinley
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Munchkins
subjects of the eastern banking and industrial interests, i.e., eastern workers who didn't vote for Bryan
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Scarecrow
western farmers. They were Populists
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Tin Woodsman
eastern workers. Populist mythology always looked to this group for support, but never actually found it in reality. Baum realized this (most Populists didn't) and shows the Tinman as a victim of mechanization. He's so dehumanized he doesn't have a heart
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Cowardly Lion
William Jennings Bryan
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Emerald City
Washington D.C. The color is suggestive of paper greenbacks
Wizard of Oz Allegory - The Wizard
President McKinley, but sometimes his advisor, Marcus Alonzo Hanna