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what is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?

pancreas (digestive)

which of the following is not considered an organ of the immune system?


which does NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site?

opsonization (adding molecule onto antigen)

which action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis?


what percentage of blood plasma is water?


during hemopoeisis, some of the myeloid stem cells (derive from myeloid precursor [marrow]) will eventually develop into


which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions

mom is Rh negative and fetus is Rh positive

which of the following situations could result in maternal antibodies attacking fetal blood cells during second pregnancy?


which blood type is a person if their plasma contains only anti-A agglutinin?

interlobar arteries >arcuate arteries >glomerular capillaries >arcuate veins

which is the correct order of blood flow through the kidneys?

glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct

which is the correct order of filtrate flow?

glomerular capsule

this is the structure of teh nephron that filters the blood

increase, sodium

increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a________ of blood_______?


what is the normal volume of urine produced in humans?

atrial natriuretic peptide

hormone secreted by the heart when there is an increase in blood flow which increases sodium excretion


consumption of salty food will cause an increase in this hormone because water needs to be retained to dilute it.


this is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue


this hormone promotes the final step of spermatogenesis, a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes

LH (anterior pituitary)

this hormone triggers ovulation


this is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation, a steroid hormone produced in the ovary


first menses

a diploid fertilized ovum



this hormone inhibits the release of FSH from the pituitary gland


in male embyos, this hormone is responsible for the development of the urethra, prostate and external genitals

anterior pituitary gland

the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise the


which hormone opposes the action of the parathyroid hormone?
thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone

synthesis of calcitonin

which does not describe a step in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4?

iodide trapping, oxidation of iodide, coupling of T1 and T2, iodination of tyrosine

all involved in the synthesis and secretion of T3 and T4

myxedema (disorder of the skin)

hypthyroidism during adulthood can produce which of the following disorders?

arachidonic acid

all prostaglandins are derived from a 20- carbon precursor molecule called

adipose tissue

leptin is a hormone produced by the

parathyroid hormone

released from the parathyroid gland


released from the pancreas


released from the pancreas


released from the posterior pituitary gland

parathyroid hormone, insulin, glucagon and ADH

hormones that are secreted from an endocrine gland in response to a chemical change in the blood

follicle- stimulating hormone

Released from the anterior pituitary gland to target the ovaries & testes.

parathyroid hormone

which hormone commonly increases in plasma of older individuals due to an inadequate dietary intake of calcium?


the membrane that surrounds and protects the heart

pericardial fluid

this is used to reduce the friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart

anterior int(er)ventricular sulcus (between)

this groove found on the surface of the heart marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles

into arteries

contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly

through atrioventricular valves (AV)

contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly

right atrium and right ventricle (deoxygenated)

what chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?

cardiac output

the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute

vagus nerve

stimulation of this nerve reduces heart rate

medulla oblongata

this part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulates heart rate


renin is synthesized by the

0 mg/mL

what concentration of glucose passes through the urethra of a normal individual if their blood glucose is 100 mg/mL?


a vessel that acts as a pressure reservoir is the

tunica interna

which layer of a blood vessel produces valves?

tunica media

which layer of the artery wall is responsible for vasoconstriction?

slow the entry of blood into the capillary bed, decrease the cross-sectional area available for blood flow, raise the systemic blood pressure

constriction of the precapillary sphincter will


type II cella are found in the___ of the lung


contraction of smooth muscle is most likely to narrow the airway by constricting the


which tissue in the lung is the MOST important for the process of passive exhalation?

air, blood, lungs

in a normal healthy individual, the pleural cavities do NOT contain

secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin

which hormones are synthesized by enteroendocrine cells in the digestive tract?


zygomen granules in the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are


which of the following substances is MOST easily absorbed by the stomach?

a. Are normally impermeable to water in the absence of vasopressin
b. May have either a simple cuboidal or a simple columnar epithelium
d. Drain into the papillary ducts

collecting ducts


which hormone produced by the kidney aids in RBC formation

glomerular capillaries

glomerular filtrate originates in the

Urinary bladder lumen lined with transitional epithelium

urinary passages

conducting arteries

the blood vessels that receive blood directly from the ventricles of the heart are


which blood vessel type is the one used predominantly for gas and nutrient exchange with the body tissues?

blood flow

the volume of blood flowing in any tissue for a given time period is

veins and venules

at any given time which vessels have the largest volume of blood?


fetal hemoglobin has a (an)_____ affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin

Is the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in one breath, Includes the volume of air in the respiratory space and the volume of air in the conducting space

tidal volume


the tonsils are located in the

pulmonary arteries

deoxygenated blood is brought to the lungs by the


this layer of the GI tract is composed of alveolar CT that binds the mucosa to muscularis externa

jejunum, villi and glands

part of the small intestine

Submucosal location in GI tract
Involuntary nervous system control of glands

Meissner's submucosal plexus

MALT, illeum

peyer's patches are an example of______ found in the _______.

Bowman's capsule

renal corpuscles contain

Blood pressure regulation,
Renin synthesis

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is involved in _____.

Ureters drain urine from bladder to exterior of the body

INCORRECT statement about the urinary system.

Ca2+ resorption in the distal convoluted tubule

In the presence of PTH the nephron increases

Oxygenated, systemic circulation

The aorta sends ____ blood to the ______.

a. The artery has a thicker wall than the vein.*
b. The vein has less elastic tissue than the artery.*
c. The lumen of the artery is smaller than the lumen of the vein.*

ALL the correct statements comparing blood vessels that travel next to each other in the body

Discontinuous capillary

The wall of a liver sinusoid is MOST similar in structure to a _________.


Valves are found mainly in which type of blood vessel?

a. Surrounds or suspends some organs of the digestive tract
b. Has a layer of simple squamous epithelium
c. Secretes peritoneal fluid


muscularis externa

Peristalsis depends most on which layer of the GI tract?

Pressure inside the thoracic cavity must be higher than atmospheric pressure.
External intercostal muscles must relax.

Which of the following events are required for normal exhalation?

-exchange of gases between the blood and tissues
-generation of ATP and pyruvate from glucose
-combustion of fuels to CO2 and H2O to generate ATP

External respiration is NOT the _____.

External respiration

Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood

-Upper folds vibrate and produce sound
-Produces sound when air is forced past the vibrating vestibular cords
-Thyrohyoid membrane lies below the vocal folds.

FALSE statements about the larynx.


Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?

Not present on epithelial cells of the small intestine*

FALSE statements about microvilli

Concentrates bile

TRUE statement about the gall bladder.

The same cells synthesize pepsinogen and intrinsic factor.

INCORRECT statement about the stomach.

Hepatic sinusoids

Blood from the hepatic portal vein next enters the _____.

Proximal convoluted tubule

Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?

More water is resorbed when ADH is present.

CORRECT statement about the kidney.


which is a hormone of the islets of langerhans?

islets of langerhans

cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ

islets of langerhans

clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two hormones directly into the circulatory system. alpha cells, which secrete the peptide hormone GLUCAGONS, and beta cells, which secrete the hormone INSULIN.


hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells


a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)

thyroid gland

which of the following organs is and ENDOCRINE gland or contains and endocrine gland?

endocrine gland

any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

exocrine gland

a gland that secretes externally through a duct

ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine

hormones that increase their concentrations in blood during stress


hormone that lowers blood calcium

Growth Hormone

hormone thats acts on the liver causing it to release IGF's


from liver stimulation, by HGH promote tissue repair and bone growth, insiulin like growth factors

up- regulation

when a hormone is present in low levels, the number of target cell receptors may increase. this i called


the hormone responsible for MILK EJECTION


lack of which hormone can result in diabetes insipidus


ADH normally increases retention of water by the

anterior pituitary

prolactin is synthesized by the which gland?


gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary.
in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and MILK PRODUCTION after parturition


which hormones will travel in the hypothalmohypophyseal portal vein?


corticotropin releasing hormones which is released by the hypothalamus,
is released in response to decreased concentrations of adrenal cortical hormones


hormone RELEASED by the Hypothalamus that controls the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary (TSH)


which hormone INHIBITS bone breakdown

diabetes insipidus

a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys)

diabetes mellitus

condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose

producing gametes with one of each type of chromosome

meiosis is the process of

leydig cells, spermatagonia

which cells of the testis are 2n?

leydig cells

A cell that produces testosterone and other androgens and is located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.


the primary spermatocytes develop from the division of these cells

sertoli cells

the cells in the testis responsible for the NOURISHING cells of the sperm-forming lineage are the

down regulation

when a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target call receptors decrease


these hormones act on neighboring cells with out entering the blood stream


lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol


the structure that protects and regulates the temperature of the testes

seminiferous tubules

the structure that is the site of SPERM PRODUCTION


how many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobules?

spermatogenic cells

these cells may eventually become spermatozoa

leydig cells

these cells secrete testosterone

lutenizing hormone (LH)

this STIMULATES the target cells to secrete testosterone

rete testis

the straight tubules in the testes lead into the

rete testis

network of tubules carrying sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vasa efferentia

sperm maturation

the function of the epididymis

secondary oocytes, estrogen and progesterone

what is produced by the ovaries?

suspensory ligament

this attaches the ovaries and the uterus to the pelvic wall

uterine tube

the site of fertilization


the part of the uterus that opens into the vagina

mons pubis

anterior to the vagina and urethral openings is the

increase the active resorption of Na+ with H2O following passively

aldosterone acts on the kidney to

hyperosmolarity of extracellular fluids

ADH is released in response to

corpus luteum

progesterone is SECRETED by the

requirements for fertilizing a secondary oocyte

only a single sperm may penetrate the corona radiata and the zona pellucia, capacitation, acrosomal reaction

zona pellucida

A thick, transpartent coating rich in glycoproteins that surrounds an oocyte.

corpus luteum

yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum

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