Bio 212 Exam 1

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A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. What is true of this compound?

It should dissolve in water

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. What functional group should be added to the molecule?

Amino

From its atomic number of 15, it is possible to predict that the phosphorus atom has?

15 protons and 15 electrons

What polymer is not found in cells?

polyethylene

Which polymer contains sulfur?

protein

What explains the attraction of water molecules to one another?

hydrogen bond

what bond is not considered to be a weak molecular attraction?

covalent bond

hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are?

nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

enantiomers are?

are mirror images of one another

buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by?

accepting H+ in acidic solutions

which macromolecular structure plays an essential role in hydrogen bonds?

alpha helix, protein tertiary structure, cellulose

polymerization of which macromolecular structures does not involve dehydration synthesis?

phospholipid bilayer

what polymers contain nitrogen?

protein and RNA

in what class of polymers is the backbone structure often branched?

polysaccharide

the attraction of phospholipid molecules to form a bilayer involves?

exclusion of water from the bilayer structure

what two terms have the same meaning?

monosaccharide and sugar

which structures are characteristic of eukaryotic, but not prokaryotic cells?

endomembrane system

which structures are characteristic of animal cells but not plant cells?

lysosomes

which structures are characteristic of plant cells but not animal cells?

central vacuole

which cell structure is made entirely of protein and RNA?

ribosomes

which eukaryotic cell structure is characterized by two biological membranes?

nucleus and mitochondria

where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?

nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

which compartment often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?

vacuole

what eukaryotic cell structure is the site of most membrane synthesis?

endoplasmic reticulum

what cellular activities do not involve microtubules?

muscle contraction

what prevents membrane proteins from floating away from the membrane?

hydrophobic forces

chloride ion channels are membrane structure that either are or include what in their structure?

transmembrane proteins

the movement of potassium into an animal cell requires?

an energy source such as ATP or a proton gradient

if a cell is placed in pure water, why does it take up water?

water is able to leak across plasma membrane. the higher solute concentration of dissolved molecules inside a cell causes water to move into the cell by osmosis

the mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is known as?

feedback inhibition

if you know the change in free energy of a reaction. what does this value tell you?

whether is proceeds from left to right

what is the activation energy of a reaction?

the energy to which reaction intermediates must be brought before a reaction can proceed

why do two of the first three steps of glycolysis require ATP?

in both reactions a phosphate is added to glucose. addition of two phosphate groups make glucose unstable so it splits in two parts

for each glucose molecule metabolized in glycolysis , how many acetyl Co-A molecules are produced?

two

which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally with or without oxygen?

glycolysis

what is the immediate energy source that through coupling permits the synthesis to happen in cells?

hydrogen ion gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane

hemoglobin is a blood protein that is made of four polypeptide chains. What is the term used to describe the protein structure created when multiple polypeptide subunits bind together

quaternary structure

Macromolecules are polymers. If the monomers are nucleotides, what class of macromolecules are we talking about?

nucleic acid

A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from:

a plant or an animal

where are ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells?

cytosol, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

which of the following contains its own DNA and ribosomes?

mitochondria

where in a eukaryotic cell are proteins destined for lysosomes synthesized?

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

What cytoskeletal elements are found in cilia and flagella in eukaryotic cells?

microtubules

What distinguishes facilitated transport across a cell membrane from active transport?

Active transport requires the expenditure of chemical free energy, facilitated transport does not.

what transport process does osmosis depend on?

diffusion

which membrane activity requires energy from ATP hydrolysis?

Na+ ions moving out of the cell

A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X-->Y--> Z--> A. In the metabolic chain, product A binds to the active site of the enzyme that converts X to Y. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. Substance A functions as

a competitive inhibitor

Imagine a chemical reaction A --> B with a ΔG = -2kcal/mole. What can be done to change the reaction so that B --> A will actually happen?

add more reagent B

In a coupled reaction the positive ΔG of one partial reaction is overcome by the negative ΔG of another partial reaction. When the second half-reaction is ATP --> ADP + Pi, there is normally a reaction intermediate. What is the nature of this intermediate?

a phosphate group covalently bound to another organic molecule

in cellular biochemistry, what does an allosteric activator do?

binds to a regulatory site causing an allosteric enzyme to change its shape from inactive to active form

most of the NADH production in mitochondria comes from what group of reactions?

citric acid cycle

which aspect of respiration produces most of the cell's ATP?

chemiosmosis

How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?

2

One of the end products of oxidative phorylation is ATP. The process is rather complicated. Where does the energy come from that is used to combine phosphate with ADP in mitochondria?

the combination of electrons from glucose with oxygen

where in the cell is molecular oxygen used in respiration?

oxygen accepts electrons from the electron transport chain

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