threshold, sodium, positive feedback
When depolarization reaches ______ (-55 mv) it brings about an increase in the opening of _________ channels. This is a form of ___________.
acetylcholine (ACH), norepinephrine & dopamine, glutamate, GABA & Glycine, endorphins
What are 5 examples of neurotransmitters.
endorphins, morphine, heroine
This neurotransmitter inhibits pain. The effects are mimmicked by ________ and _______.
axons, dendrites, connective tissue
A nerve is a bundle of ___________ or ________ surrounded by a _________ wrapping.
sympathetic division, parasympathetic division
The autonomic nervous system is divided into 2 divisions They are:
glucose, increased energy
Pysiological adj. in sympathetic division - the liver releases more _______ into the blood needed for the ________ needs of the cell.
dilate, ventilation, oxygen
Physiological adj. in sympathetic division: -The bronchioles in the lungs _________, increasing __________, which results in increased amount of _______ being delivered to the cells.
sodium pump, potassium, sodium
The _______ helps to restore the membrane back to resting where ______ is on the inside and ________ is on the outside.
inside - cytoplasmic side, negatively, outside, positively
-70 mv -the minus sign indicates that the ______ of the membrane is ________ charged and the ______ of the membrane is _______ charged.
action potentials, depolarization
_________ may arise if the ______ is strong enough. If the threshold is reached (-55 mv).
When a stimulus causes the membrane potential to be "more negative", the membrane is being _____________.
nonessential, inhibited, digestion
Physiological adj. in sympathetic division. All __________ activities are _________. An example would be: ___________
presynaptic, calcium, calcium
Step 1 of a chemical synapse: depolarization of _________ neuron results in the opening of _________ channels, which allows ______ to flow into the cell.
exocytosis, synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters
Step 2 of a chemical synapse:
Ca causes __________ of the neurotransmitter filled synaptic vessicles. When the _______ fuse with the plasma membrane, the __________ are released into the synaptic cleft.
Step 3 of a chemical synapse:
__________ bind receptors located on the ______ membrane.
excitatory (causes a response), inhibitory (stops a response)
Step 4 of a chemical synapse:
This causes either an ___________ or an _____________ response.
neurotransmitters, synaptic cleft
Once a response has been brought about the ______ must be removed from the ________.
diffusion- move from an area of high concentration to an area of low conc. away from the cleft;
degraded by enzymes-broken down;
taken back into presynaptic neuron;
What are the three ways that a response can be removed from tghe synaptic cleft.
myelin, demyelinating, multiple sclerosis, central nervous system, sclerosis
The importance of ___________ to nerve transmission is painfully clear to those with ______ diseases such as ________. In this disease, myelin sheaths in the _______ are gradually destroyed, reduced to nonfunctional hardened lesions called ________.
myelin, nodes, slowly, impulse conduction, axons, Sodium (Na), demyelinated fibers, relapse, remission
The loss of ______ causes such substantial shunting & short circuiting of the current that successive _____ are excigted more & more ______ and eventually _____ ceases. However, the ______ themselves are not damaged and growing numbers of ________ channels appear spontaneously in the _______. This may account for the remarkably variable cycles of _________ and __________.
somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is divided into 2 other systems; They are:
pheripheral nervous system
Regeneration of nervous tissue: If the soma of the neruon is intact, the neurons can be repaired.
Neurons that have axons that are not covered with myelin are called: ___________.
myelinated, white, white matter, fast
Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of _______ axons are _______ in color and referred to as _______. Conduction is very ________.
The somatic nervous system is usually composed of ___________ pairs of spinal nerves and ______ pairs of cranial nerves.
acetycholine (ACH), excitatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
This neurotransmitter is always associated w/voluntary muscles & nothing else. It is ______ at neuromuscular jnctions. It can be degraded by the enzyme ____________.
central nervous system
Regeneration of Nervous Tissue:
-currently there is no chance of repair of this:
motor (efferent) neurons
_________ conduct nervous impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Activation may result in a pounding heart, rapid and deep breathing, cold and sweaty skin and dilated pupils.
continuous conduction, saltatory conduction
What are two types of conductions of an action potential?
saltatory, faster, nodes of Ranvier
_________conduction occurs in myelinated axons and move much _________ due to the clusters of Sodium (Na) channels at the ___________.
Sends nervous impulses away fromt he cell body towards another neuron, muscle fiber, or gland cell.
__________ are short lived, local changes in mnembrane potential. (on the outside)( -55 mV)
unmyelinated, gray, gray matter
Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of cell bodies and _____ axons are _______ in color and are referred to as ___________.
presynaptic neuron, synaptic vesicles
_____ is a neuron before the synapse and it releases neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are stored in _________.
autonomic nervous system
This system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands (involuntary)
peripheral nervous system
All other nervous system structures other than the brain and spinal court.
sensory (afferent) neurons
_________ conduct nervous impulses from sensory receptors toward the central nervous system.
norepinephrine and dopamine receptors *feel good transmitter
This neurotransmitter can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect. it all depends on the _______.
synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters
The synaptic knobs contain _____ which store _______ (chemical messengers).
________ is the space between the 2 communicating structures.
Microscopic (ex. neuron and a muscle)
resting state, depolarization, repolarization, after-hyperpolarization
What are the phases involved with an action potential?
synaptic cleft, presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron
What are the 3 anatomies of a chemical synapse?
The all or none principle
__________ is if depolarization reaches threshold the action potential will occur at a constant strength, whether or not the stimulus continues. However, if the # of Na entering the cell is too low to achieve threshold no AP will occur.
resting membrane potential
________________ is the electrical voltage difference across the membrane of a neuron at rest. (-70 mV)
repolarization, negative (-70 mV)
___________ is when sodium channels close and Potassium channels open. K rushes out of the cell making the membrane potential more _________ again.
central nervous system, peripheral nervous system
Neurotransmitters are found in both the _____________ and ____________.
central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Name 2 organizations of the nervous system.
Motor (efferent) neurons
______ conduct nervous impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
sensory (afferent) neurons, motor (efferent) neurons
What are the 2 functional classifications of neurons?
When a stimulus causes the membrane potential to be less negative the membrane is being _________.
Nodes of Ranvier, sodium channels
The spaces between Schwann cells are called ___________.
These containe buches of ____________________.
sensory function, integrative function, motor function
What are the three basic functions of the nervous tissue?
acetycholine (ACh), excitatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
This neurotransmitter is always associated with voluntary muscle & nothing else. It is ______ at neuromuscular junctions. It can be degraded by the enzyme ________________.
The somatic nervous system is usually composed of ______ pairs of spinal nerves and _____ paris of cranial nerves.
myelinated, white, white matter, fast
Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of ________ axons are ___________ in color and referred to as _______. Conduction is very _________.
Peripherial nervous system
Regeneration of nervous tissue: If the soma of the neuron is intact the neurons can be repaired.
somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is divided into 2 other systems.