Chapter 11 Nervous System

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threshold, sodium, positive feedback

When depolarization reaches ______ (-55 mv) it brings about an increase in the opening of _________ channels. This is a form of ___________.

polarized

Cells which are at resting membrane potential (-70 mv) are said to be: _________

acetylcholine (ACH), norepinephrine & dopamine, glutamate, GABA & Glycine, endorphins

What are 5 examples of neurotransmitters.

endorphins, morphine, heroine

This neurotransmitter inhibits pain. The effects are mimmicked by ________ and _______.

axons, dendrites, connective tissue

A nerve is a bundle of ___________ or ________ surrounded by a _________ wrapping.

action potentials

Graded potentials help cause ____________.

resting state

___________ is when all of tghe sodium and potassium channels are closed.

sympathetic division, parasympathetic division

The autonomic nervous system is divided into 2 divisions They are:

glucose, increased energy

Pysiological adj. in sympathetic division - the liver releases more _______ into the blood needed for the ________ needs of the cell.

-70 mv to -60 mv

An example of a membrane being depolarized is:

mylinated neurons

Neurons that have axons covered with myelin are called:

peripheral nervous system

In the ______________, myelin is produced by Schwann cells.

depolarization

_________ is caused by a rapid opening of the sodium channels.

synaptic knobs

The bulb shaped ends of the axons are called ___________.

dilate, ventilation, oxygen

Physiological adj. in sympathetic division: -The bronchioles in the lungs _________, increasing __________, which results in increased amount of _______ being delivered to the cells.

cell body

This contains the nucleus, organelles, etc.

sodium pump, potassium, sodium

The _______ helps to restore the membrane back to resting where ______ is on the inside and ________ is on the outside.

short distances, fizzle out

Graded potentials travel ___________ and then ___________.

inside - cytoplasmic side, negatively, outside, positively

-70 mv -the minus sign indicates that the ______ of the membrane is ________ charged and the ______ of the membrane is _______ charged.

action potentials, depolarization

_________ may arise if the ______ is strong enough. If the threshold is reached (-55 mv).

inhibitory, excitatory, both

Neurotransmitters can be __________, or __________, or ___________.

myelin sheath

Most axons are surrounded by a __________.

hyperpolarized

When a stimulus causes the membrane potential to be "more negative", the membrane is being _____________.

nonessential, inhibited, digestion

Physiological adj. in sympathetic division. All __________ activities are _________. An example would be: ___________

presynaptic, calcium, calcium

Step 1 of a chemical synapse: depolarization of _________ neuron results in the opening of _________ channels, which allows ______ to flow into the cell.

exocytosis, synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters

Step 2 of a chemical synapse:
Ca causes __________ of the neurotransmitter filled synaptic vessicles. When the _______ fuse with the plasma membrane, the __________ are released into the synaptic cleft.

neurotransmitters, postsynaptic

Step 3 of a chemical synapse:
__________ bind receptors located on the ______ membrane.

excitatory (causes a response), inhibitory (stops a response)

Step 4 of a chemical synapse:
This causes either an ___________ or an _____________ response.

neurotransmitters, synaptic cleft

CHEMICAL SYNAPSE
Once a response has been brought about the ______ must be removed from the ________.

diffusion- move from an area of high concentration to an area of low conc. away from the cleft;
degraded by enzymes-broken down;
taken back into presynaptic neuron;

What are the three ways that a response can be removed from tghe synaptic cleft.

myelin, demyelinating, multiple sclerosis, central nervous system, sclerosis

The importance of ___________ to nerve transmission is painfully clear to those with ______ diseases such as ________. In this disease, myelin sheaths in the _______ are gradually destroyed, reduced to nonfunctional hardened lesions called ________.

myelin, nodes, slowly, impulse conduction, axons, Sodium (Na), demyelinated fibers, relapse, remission

The loss of ______ causes such substantial shunting & short circuiting of the current that successive _____ are excigted more & more ______ and eventually _____ ceases. However, the ______ themselves are not damaged and growing numbers of ________ channels appear spontaneously in the _______. This may account for the remarkably variable cycles of _________ and __________.

Glial cells and Neurons

Two major categories of nervous cells.

parasympathetic division

controls non-stressful situated "rest & digest"

somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system

The peripheral nervous system is divided into 2 other systems; They are:

pheripheral nervous system

Regeneration of nervous tissue: If the soma of the neruon is intact, the neurons can be repaired.

unmyelinated neurons

Neurons that have axons that are not covered with myelin are called: ___________.

central nervous system

In the ____________, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes.

efferent cell process

This cell process carries away from the cell body.

Sensory function

Senses changes (stimuli) n the internal and external environment.

motor function

Responds to the stimuli after decisionis made.

glutamate

This neurotransmitter is a powerful exitatory.

myelinated, white, white matter, fast

Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of _______ axons are _______ in color and referred to as _______. Conduction is very ________.

afferent cell process

This cell process carry toward the cell body.

31, 12

The somatic nervous system is usually composed of ___________ pairs of spinal nerves and ______ pairs of cranial nerves.

-70 mv to - 75 mv

An example of the membrane be hyperpolarized is:

acetycholine (ACH), excitatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

This neurotransmitter is always associated w/voluntary muscles & nothing else. It is ______ at neuromuscular jnctions. It can be degraded by the enzyme ____________.

central nervous system

Regeneration of Nervous Tissue:
-currently there is no chance of repair of this:

ganglia

clusters of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.

motor (efferent) neurons

_________ conduct nervous impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.

somatic nervous system

controls skeletal muscles (voluntary)

sympathetic division

Activation may result in a pounding heart, rapid and deep breathing, cold and sweaty skin and dilated pupils.

sympathetic division

Deals with stressful situations "fight or flight".

continuous conduction, saltatory conduction

What are two types of conductions of an action potential?

saltatory, faster, nodes of Ranvier

_________conduction occurs in myelinated axons and move much _________ due to the clusters of Sodium (Na) channels at the ___________.

continuous, slow

__________ conduction occurs in unmyelinated axons and move __________.

axons

Sends nervous impulses away fromt he cell body towards another neuron, muscle fiber, or gland cell.

graded potentials

__________ are short lived, local changes in mnembrane potential. (on the outside)( -55 mV)

unmyelinated, gray, gray matter

Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of cell bodies and _____ axons are _______ in color and are referred to as ___________.

presynaptic neuron, synaptic vesicles

_____ is a neuron before the synapse and it releases neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are stored in _________.

dendrites

Part of the neuron which recieves nervous impulses.

autonomic nervous system

This system controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands (involuntary)

peripheral nervous system

All other nervous system structures other than the brain and spinal court.

cell body, dendrites, axons, myelin sheath

What are 4 parts of the neuron anatomy?

potassium (K)

What solute plays the most important role in generating the membrane potential?

sensory (afferent) neurons

_________ conduct nervous impulses from sensory receptors toward the central nervous system.

norepinephrine and dopamine receptors *feel good transmitter

This neurotransmitter can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect. it all depends on the _______.

postsynaptic neuron

_________ is the neuron after the synapse.

synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters

The synaptic knobs contain _____ which store _______ (chemical messengers).

nuclei

These are clusters of cell bodies within the central nervous system.

synaptic cleft

________ is the space between the 2 communicating structures.
Microscopic (ex. neuron and a muscle)

brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

glial cells

These are also called neuroglia or supporting cells.

resting state, depolarization, repolarization, after-hyperpolarization

What are the phases involved with an action potential?

synaptic cleft, presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron

What are the 3 anatomies of a chemical synapse?

neuron, speeds up

Myelin insulates the _____ and _____ the conduction of a nervous impulse.

The all or none principle

__________ is if depolarization reaches threshold the action potential will occur at a constant strength, whether or not the stimulus continues. However, if the # of Na entering the cell is too low to achieve threshold no AP will occur.

action potentials (AP)

_________ is a "nervous impulse".

threshold

_________ is that point, usually (-55 mV), when a neuron is stimulated to produce AP.

GABA and Glycine

This neurotransmitter is a powerful inhibitory.

resting membrane potential

________________ is the electrical voltage difference across the membrane of a neuron at rest. (-70 mV)

repolarization, negative (-70 mV)

___________ is when sodium channels close and Potassium channels open. K rushes out of the cell making the membrane potential more _________ again.

depolarizes

The inflow of sodium (Na) further _______ the membrane (30 MV).

central nervous system, peripheral nervous system

Neurotransmitters are found in both the _____________ and ____________.

central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Name 2 organizations of the nervous system.

neurotransmitters

______ are the chemical messengers of the nervous system.

Integrative function

Analyzes the changes and makes decisions on what should happen.

Motor (efferent) neurons

______ conduct nervous impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.

Neurons

These conduct nervous impulses from one prt of the body to another *Partially electric

sensory (afferent) neurons, motor (efferent) neurons

What are the 2 functional classifications of neurons?

depolarized

When a stimulus causes the membrane potential to be less negative the membrane is being _________.

Nodes of Ranvier, sodium channels

The spaces between Schwann cells are called ___________.
These containe buches of ____________________.

sensory function, integrative function, motor function

What are the three basic functions of the nervous tissue?

Ganglia

Clusters of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system are _________.

central nervous system

Regeneration of nervous tissue:
currently there is no chance of repair.

acetycholine (ACh), excitatory, acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

This neurotransmitter is always associated with voluntary muscle & nothing else. It is ______ at neuromuscular junctions. It can be degraded by the enzyme ________________.

-70 mV to -75 mV

An example of th emembrane be hyperpolarized is _________.

31, 12

The somatic nervous system is usually composed of ______ pairs of spinal nerves and _____ paris of cranial nerves.

afferent cell process

This cell process carry toward the cell body.

myelinated, white, white matter, fast

Regions of the central nervous system that consist mainly of ________ axons are ___________ in color and referred to as _______. Conduction is very _________.

Glutamate

This neurotransmitter is a powerful excitatory.

Motor function

Responds to the stimuli after decision is made.

sensory function

Senses changes (stimuli) in the internal and external environment.

Efferent cell process

This cell process carries away from the cell body.

central nervous system

In the __________, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes.

unmyelinated neurons

Neurons that have axons that are not covered with myelin are called.

Peripherial nervous system

Regeneration of nervous tissue: If the soma of the neuron is intact the neurons can be repaired.

somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system

The peripheral nervous system is divided into 2 other systems.

after-hyperpolarization, restore, -70 mV

___________ is when Potassium channels are slow to close, so sodium continues to move out of the cell (-90).
Once the sodium channels close the membrane potential will ______ itself to __________.

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