Sociology Final

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A child learns to act like adults, she observes and internalizes her parents' values and attitudes into her personality. Lawrence Kohlberg refers to this behavior as:

none of the above

Socialization refers to

the process of transmitting cultural values to young members

For charles H. Cooley, the process wherby our self image develops from the ways others treat us is called the ________ process

looking-glass self

The cases of children who were raised in extreme isolation demonstrate that

normal human development requires continuing human interaction

Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development argues that

virtually all children go through the same sequence of mental development

Which of the following statements about the nature/nurture debate would Alex Thio see as the most accurate?

While nature sets limits, socialization plays a very large role in determining who we are

John is playing with his toys and he is pretending to be a fireman like his father. According to Jean Piaget, by seeing himself from his father's point of view, John is

none of the above

For humans to be socialized ,it is imperative that they have:

regular social interaction with adults

Which of the following describes behavior associated with Jan Piaget's sensorimotor stage?

when a child learns with his senses and body to interact with the environment

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, at the first level of moral development, young adults have a preconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of

a right and wrong consequence

Taylor is a young girl whose parents surrounded her with books, challenging discussions, and ideas. based on our understanding of socialization, Taylor is probably

ahead of other children in the areas she had been trained in

According to George Herbert Mead, when children learn to internalize the values of society as a whole in the game stage, they take on the role of the

generalized other

Charles H. Cooley viewed society as a group of individuals helping each other to develop their personality. this means that

the core of the self is in the concept of the self image that develops from the way others see us

Natasha recieves good grades, she learns a lot and she is liked by her professors, parents, and friends. she is outgoing and also participates in several extra curricular activities that the school develops for the betterment of the students. charles H. cooley would suggest that natasha

has a good self image

in the sixth grade of the levels of development of the self, the "I" represents?

the spontaneous, creative, and impulsive personality we can have

social exchanges are usually governed by

the norm of reciprocity

which of the following statements about socialization are true EXCEPT?

it is difficult to change an adult's personality becasue it has been formed in childhood

competition in the global market has helped U.S. companies

become more efficient and productive

an ethnomethodologist would likely study

the conversations among roommates in a college dormatory

many people use the internet as a key tool of communication. which of the following is a disadvantage of electronic communication?

all of the above

Which of the following forms of social interaction are more likely to unsettle the social structure?

competition

everyday life is an important part of understanding the social world. the pioneering sociologist who developed microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding it was:

Erving Goffman

select below that one statement that is NOT a reason for studying social interaction in everyday life:

examining social interaction in everyday life allows sociologists to see how relatively unimportant language is in creating social reality

the use of internet, e-mail, chat rooms, and social networking sites, such as MySpace and Facebook:

adds a new and different dimension to the study of everyday life

at the third level of moral development, young adults have a postconventional morality, which takes into account the importance of

conflicting norms

Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain

an incongruity between two realities

the analysis of how people define the world in which they live is called

ethnomthodology

which of the following would NOT be classified as civil inattention?

working on a group project in your sociology class

which of the following statements about conflict is the most true?

conflict can often help a social structure by unifing members

the supportive social interaction's function that provides hidden, underlying meanings is absolutely crucial for

ensuring social order

intelligence is either inherited or learned

false

anticipatory socialization is the process by which an individual learns to assume a role in the future

true

superego is Freud's term for the part of the personality that is moral; popularly known as conscience

true

Jean Piaget's described seven stages of cognitive development that each child goes through

false

to be a genius, you must be born one

false

preconventional morality is Kohlberg's term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms

false

humor is only fun and games

false

because they speak the same language, men and women can easily understand each other

false

Non verbal communication may involve proxemics, the use of space as a means of communication

true

to symbolic interactionists, people usually don't take supportive interactions at face value but pay more attention to the hidden meanings behind expressed words and actions

true

parents in ______ families try to cultivate a strng acceptance and security in tehir young children by indulging them, letting them have practically anything they want and letting them behave and misbehave in any way they want

Asian Americans

according to _______, children develop their self concept in three stages

George H Mead

________ morality was Kohlberg's term for the practice of judging actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms

postconventional

Children of _________ parents are traditionally socialized through an extensive network of relatives

Native Americans

________ is an interaction in which two individuals follow mutually accepted rules, each trying to achieve the same goal before the other does

competition

________ is an interaction in which two individuals disregard any rules, each trying to achieve his or her own goal by defeating the other

conflict

________ is the use of body movements as a means of communication; also called body language

kinesis

Alex Thio affirms that by studying and appreciating social diversity in our society, we ultimately

develop a better understanding of ourselves

US sociology was reshaped during the 1960's by renewed awareness of

poverty and years of social unrest

critics of the feminist theory criticize the theory becasue it

overemphasizes the oppressiveness of patriarchy

a scientific theory is

always open to revision in the light of new evidence

according to symbolic interactionists

people respond to the interpretations of symbols and experiences

if you wanted to determine whether there is a gender difference in how often people think about sex, the best research method would be

the survey

by using each of the three major sociological perspectives, researchers can

bring more aspects of society into a sharper focus

Herbert Spencer's classic study of suicide makes the sociological point that

none of the above

sociologist Jane Johnson lived with Kickapoo indians and studied the tribal members' beliefs. This type of research is called

ethnography

sociologists study human behavior through books, magazines, letters, songs, etc. this type of research is called

content analysis

which of the following statements is most clearly linked with herbert spencer's view of society?

the primary feature of society is its interactive parts that contribute to the function of the whole

the fourth step or level we have in the scientific method is

selecting a research design by choosing one or more research methods

tom was a sunday school teacher, he played on a softball team and at nights he studied a master degree in computers. however, his main commitment was to his job. this mans that softball, chirch activities and his master program were his

subordinate statuses

sam works overtime everyday in an important company as the head of the company, he therfore cannot spend as much time as he would like wih his children. he feels guilty but knows that if he does not work overtime he could loose his job. his situation is an example of

role conflict

lisa attended her best friends funeral wearing cut off jeans and a red tank top. when the service started lisa whistled and cheered. lisa's mode of dress and behavior at the funeral was a violation of society's

folkways

with time, norms and values have changed in our society and become law. the following are norms and values that have changed overtime and have become part of the law EXCEPT

we support saluting each other

which if the following is apart of the concept of society?

a collection of interacting persons who share culture and territory

the functionalist perspective explains cultural practices by looking at

the purpose of the practice serves for society as a while

symbolic interactionists tend to stress the importance of culture as

a guide and product of human creation

which of the following statements about hunting and gathering societies is false?

these societies domesticate animals to eat

the sapir-whorf hypothesis about language and culture suggests that

language shapes the ways in which people percieve the world

which of the following statements is the definition of social institution

the stable sets of widely shared beliefs, norms, and procedures that are organized to satisfy basic needs

sociology is the systematic, scientific study of human society

true

economic globalization is a closely knit community of all the world's societies

false

participant observation is a research method that involves only asking questions about opinions, beliefs, or behaviors

false

a micro view focuses on the immediate social situation in which people interact with one another

true

patriarchy is a system of domination in which women exercise power over women

false

primary group is a group whose members interact formally, relate to each other as players of particular roles, and expect to profit from each other

false

condoleezza rice's position as national security advisor in the bush administration is an ascribed status, and her status as an african american and a woman are achieved

false

according to alex thio, we feel role strain if we have to play two conflicting roles from the same status

true

according to alex thio, both functionalist and conflict perspectives provide a structural view of culture as largely capable of constraining us

true

according to the sapir-whorf hypothesis, our language makes us see the world in a certain way

true

statuses that are given to us based on what we do, rather than who we are are called

achieved status

social stratification is a profoundly important subject in sociology because

almost every aspect of our lives, from family size to how much money we need, is linked to ou status in society

which of the following statements about economic inequality in the US is true?

the poorest 20% in the US have 4.2% of the national income

a stratification system where there is little opportunity to accumulate wealth and where there is much social equality is called

egalitarian system

for feminists, gender inequality should be studied as part of the overall stratification system because

an analysis of a stratification system must include all of its members

sociologists are using the ____ method of identifying social class when they rely on a group of people from the community to rate or locate people in the class structure

reputational

joseph is automatically rated as a member of the middle class because he has a master's degree. this way of assigning people to social classes, based on year's of education and occupation is called the

objective method

according to the absolute definition of poverty in the united states, persons are poor when they

lack the income needed to sustain a minimum standard of living

due to job loss, divorce, disabilities and old age, studies suggest

a majority of americans will experience a brief period of poverty in their life

oscar lewis characterized people living in a culture of poverty as having all of the following attitudes EXCEPT

future oriented

the essence of global stratification is

inequality among nations

sociologists who follow the functionalists theory believe that social stratification is

universal and necessary, it serves societies

the lack of minimum food and shelter necessarily for maintaining life is called

absolute poverty

conflict theorists argue that social stratification

is a reflection of power, not necessity

according to karl marx, the difference between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat is

the capitalists own the means of production and the workers do not

simon kuznets curve refers to the changing relationship between

economic development and social inequality

which of the following statements about race and ethnicity is true?

while a people's physical features do not change when they move to another country, their racial identification as blacks or whites may change

the term life chances refers to

opportunities of living a good, long, successful life

the cultural traits of an ethnic group

are culturally learned and passed from one generation to another

the famous golfer tiger woods, as an african american, has created the acronym cablinasian to describe his mixed racial background. mr woods is an example of all of the following EXCEPT

the definition of race is the same in all societies

one of several problems with the biological classification of races is that

most people are not physically distinctive

the sociological definition of race is based on

the perception of society in defining people as biologically different

which of the following is an example of prejudice

feeling negatively about people from a particular ethnic group

which of the following statements is NOT a false concept that the european settlers created a stereotype native americans

they were accused of living in tribes

one result of efforts by the US government to promote tribal economic development and self-sufficient has been

a national movement to make native americans feel proud of their cultural heritage

jim crow refers to

laws enacted after federal troops left the south that segregated blacks from whites

the largest component of the hispanic community in the united states are the

mexicans

chinese and japanese americasn are educationally and occupationally

among the most succesful minorities

a degree of human prejudice can be explained by the tendency of human beings to place the blame for one's troubles on persons incapable of offering much resistance. this device is known as

scapegoating

robert merton called people who believe in equality and put their beliefs into action

unprejudice non discriminators

which of the following statements is NOT a reason why ethnic conflict is so fierce in many countries?

the victims of ethnic conflict acted in ways that brought out ethnic hostility

Karl Marx believed that capitalist sough tomaximize profit by exploiting workers

true

the class system is the least stratified, with minimal inequality

false

according to alex thio, it is harder today than 30 years ago for americans to move from a lower to a higher social class

true

as the world's leading democratic society, the united states has the most equal distribution of income

false

according to the conflict perspective, society creates and maintains poverty because benefits can be derived from it

false

according to the conflict perspective, racial and ethnic groups can contribute to social cohesion through assimilation, amalgamation or cultural pluralism

false

genocide is the wholesale killing of members of a specific racial or ethnic group

true

there are there distinct, pure races: white, asian and black

false

according to alex thio, despite the history of discrimination against them, asian americans are doing relatively well today

true

the feudal system is made up of several segregated groups whose positions are ascribed and fixed in society

false

when using the ______________ to determine class structure, sociologists find that some people generally rank themselves higher than what they really are

subjective method

sociologists apply the ________ because it identifies social class using occupation, income and education

objective method

which of the following is a social group?

a couple married less than one

which of the following is true?

a person measures his or her own worth by the standards of a reference group

which of the following is a social aggregate?

people waiting at terminal C for flight 181

the key to increased productivity in today's organizations is not, as frederick taylor assumed, in the formal organization, but in the

informal organization, the relationships of workers

what term do sociologists use to refer to a group with an identifiable membership that engages in concerted collective actions to achieve a specific goal?

organization

jane was in charge of a difficult project in a large office. she was a tough leader and kept pushing people to accomplish the project's goals. she would be an example of a

instrumental type of leader

which of the following situations most likely illustrates a primary relationship?

a family enjoying a picnic at the beach

how do japanese corporations differ from the bureaucratic model followed by the most business organizations in the west?

japanese corporations use a horizontal, collaborative model

which of the following is among the characteristic of a bureaucracy?

all of the above

which of the following best describes the relationship between group size, intamcy, and stability?

larger groups, such as fraternity, are less intimate than small cliques, but the fraternities are a more stable group and relationships

the McDonaldization of society refers to

the increased of regulated and standardized of society due to automation

the privilege that allows leaders to deviate from their group's norms is called

idiosyncrasy credit

reference groups provide us with

a standard for judging one's attitudes and behaviors

people with a common characteristic, such as gender, occupation, or ethnicity, but not necessarily interacting with each other nor gather in one place are called a

social category

among the informal controls that we have in our society, the most effective to control deviance is

socialization

tom brown was the supervisor of a group of computer programmers. he provided support if needed, but generally allowed members of his group to work by themselves. his leadership style would be called

laissez-faire

early attempts to explain deviant behavior in individuals were based on teh assumption that crime was committed mostly by people with certain physical traits. this view was called

biological determinism

the culture of rape suggests all of the following attitudes EXCEPT

women are treated as equals to men in all aspects of society

if you live in a high crime area, many of teh people you will befriend will be involved in criminal ativites, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. the conceptual context for the phenomenon is known as

differential association

according to edwin sutherland, how do criminals adopt behavior?

they learn criminal behavior from peers

with which of the following statements might a conflict theorist most closely agree?

deviants are labeled as such by powerful groups who use the label to control less powerful

the first day of college, you may have felt a little uncertain about how to behave. Durkheim and other sociologists would describe your feelings as

anomic

many characteristics of organizations appear orthodox but activities are all illegal, easy to evade law enforcements, they are called

organized crime

sociological research and theory suggest that

crime and deviance are rooted in the structure of society, including poverty, urban conditions, and generally, the crises faced by many young men

nowadays, corporate crime, or white collar crime, occurs at a higher rate than individual criminal acts. which of the following is an example of corporate crime?

all of the above

which two theories explaining deviance are classified as symbolic interactionist?

differential association and labeling theory

most evidence about the impact of capital punishment on murder rates supports the conclusion that capital punishment

is not effective deterrent to murder

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