ignore bars, what is large helical structure? Not starch, almost though.
ignore bars, name of entire structure?
type of linkage, not the dehydration reaction
polyunsaturated fatty acid
saturated fatty acid
unsaturated fatty acid
The critically important large molecules of life; carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Long chain like molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
The repeating units that serve as a building block of polymers. Some have functions on their own.
A bond created when two molecules bond together and as a result, lose part of their original composition. The new molecule "condenses" from the two that join.
A bond created when two molecules bond together and as a result, a water molecule is freed. A hydroxyl group is necessary for this reaction to occur in biological systems. A hydroxyl group is lost by one molecule, while a hydrogen is lost by the other.
Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They consist of amino acids.
The reverse of a dehydration reaction. This disassembles polymers by breaking the link between monomers with a water molecule. One molecule gains a hydrogen atom, while the other gains a hydroxyl.
Sugars and sugar polymers.
Generally have structures that are a multiple of CH2O. Can be considered polysaccharide monomers. Contain a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyls.
Sugar with carbonyl group at end of molecule. Aldehyde sugar.
Sugar with carbonyl group in middle of molecule. Ketone sugar.
Glucose, fructose, and other sugars that contain 6 carbons.
Sugars that contain 3 carbons.
Sugars that contain 5 carbons.
Consist of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage.
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Macromolecule polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monomers. Can serve as storage material and building material. Their function is determined by the sugar monomers involved and the way they are covalently bonded to each other.
A polymer of glucose monomers. Organisms save them as energy storage.
Polymer of glucose monomers. Single un-branched chains of starch, found within the chloroplasts of plants.
Polymer of glucose monomers. Slightly branched starch polymers.
Heavily branched starch polymers. Stored in vertebrate liver and muscle cells. An emergency stash of energy that depletes rapidly, it can not sustain an organism for long and must be replenished in about a day by eating.
Polysaccharide that is main component of strong plant cell walls. The most abundant organic material on Earth. It is made of glucose, but the glycosidic linkages differ from starch. The links are in the glucose beta configuration, and every other molecule is flipped in relation to the previous.
The carbohydrate used as exoskeleton construction materials. Is normally leathery, but becomes hardened by calcium carbonate.
Starch is a helical chain, cellulose is a straight chain. Cellulose isn't branched, and some hydroxyl groups on its glucose monomers are free to hydrogen bond.
Macromolecules that include fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
A large molecule assembled of glycerol and fatty acids. A form of stored energy, and provides more energy per part than starch. Many mobile organisms that have a greater need to store energy, have this.
A three carboned molecule, each attached to a hydroxyl group.
A long chain hydrocarbon, usually 16-18 carbons in length. One end is a carboxyl group. Hydrophobic.
a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group.
A molecule in which a glycerol molecule is attached to three fatty acids through ester linkages.
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which each carbon is attached to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms as possible. Organisms that require higher body temperatures usually have these.
unsaturated fatty acid
has one or more carbon double bonds, effectively reducing the amount of hydrogen in the fatty acid. Plants, fish, and other lower temperature organisms often contain these.
hydrogenated vegetable oils
Vegetable oil that has been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen atoms, changing the temperature at which the molecule solidifies.
A trans isomer of unsaturated fatty acid that can sometimes be created during hydrogenation.
Cells that store fats in animals. The cells swell and shrink when fat is added or removed.
Essential to cells, as they make up cell membranes. Similar to a fat molecule, but one of the glycerols hydroxyl group attaches to a phosphate, which attaches to another hydrophilic group. The hydrophilic cells face outward, while the hydrophobic "tails" face each other.
Many hormones including cholesterol, which consist of four infused carbon rings. They vary based on the structure and groups attached to these rings.
A common component of animal cell membranes, and also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized.
Nearly every dynamic function of humanity is dependent upon them. Account for 50% of most cells dry mass.
support, storage, transport, defense, hormonal, enzymatic, receptor, movement
Eight functions of proteins.
Protein type; selective acceleration of chemical reactions.
Protein type; provide support for the way an organism is built. Includes hair, horns, feathers, and even a spiders silk.
Protein type; store amino acids. Includes ovalbumin and casein(milk protein).
Protein type; moves biological material from one area to another. Hemoglobin is an example.
Protein type; coordinate an organisms activities. Includes insulin.
Protein type; response of cell to chemical stimuli. Nerve cells detecting touch.
Protein type; protection against illness and disease. Antibodies that fight off foreign invaders.
contractile and motor proteins
Protein type; responsible for the contractions of muscle. Some are responsible for the undulations of cilia and flagella organelles.
Proteins that behave as catalysts, selectively speeding chemical reactions.
Chemical agents that selectively speed or slow down a chemical reaction without being consumed.
Polymers of amino acids composed commonly from 20 different amino acids.
Consists of one or more polypeptide, folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure.
Organic molecules containing both a carboxyl and an amino group. The asymmetric carbon is attached to a variable side chain that determines the function of the molecule.
The amino acid that lacks an asymmetric carbon, as it has a single hydrogen side chain.
The substance the enzyme works with
The joining of an amino group and a carboxyl group, resulting in a dehydration reaction. This repeated process forms a polypeptide.
Protein structure; the specific polypeptide sequence of a protein.
Protein structure; the coils and folds caused by polypeptide(not side chain) hydrogen bonding that contribute to a proteins overall structure.
A secondary structure where every fourth amino acid is hydrogen bonded to one another.
beta pleated sheet
A secondary structure in which two or more regions of a polypeptide are side by side, hydrogen bonding. Makes up majority shape of a globular protein.
Protein structure; the overall shape of a polypeptide involving interactions that take place between the side chains of the polypeptide.
A tertiary structure in which polar atoms in a polypeptide chain are attracted to the outside of the protein, which in turn faces the non-polar atoms inward towards one another. Van der Waals interactions help hold these non-polar atoms together.
A tertiary structure in which two cystein monomers fold the polypeptide and bond to one another due to "cross-linking" of sulfhydryl groups.
hydrogen and ionic bonds
A tertiary structure that includes polypeptide side chains. What two types of bonds?
Protein structure; the overall protein structure that results from the aggregate of polypeptide chains. Can consist of multiple, unique polypeptide chains, or fibrous, helical structures.
A quaternary structure, an iron atom contained in an organic ring.
When a protein unravels and loses its native shape, because of an alteration in its environment.
Proteins that assist in the proper folding of other proteins, but do not contribute to a proteins overall structure. They simply remove the protein from potentially harmful environments.
Can be a serious problem within cells. It is often associated with alzheimers and parkinson's disease.
Method used to discover 3-D structure of hemoglobin in 1959.
The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by this unit of inheritance.
DNA and RNA are?
The only known molecule that provides directions for its own replication. Directs RNA synthesis. The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents.
Interacts with a cells protein synthesizing machinery to direct production of a polypeptide.
The sites of protein synthesis. In a eukaryotic cell, they are contained within the cytoplasm.
Polymers of nucleotide monomers.
Consist of three parts: a phosphate group, a pentose, and a nitrogenous base.
The portion of a nucleotide containing the sugar and the nitrogenous base.
Has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Cytosine(C), thymine(T) and uracil(U).
Has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms. fused to a five-membered ring. Adenine(A) and guanine(G).
adenine(A), guanine(G) and cytosine(C)
3 nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA.
Nitrogenous base found only in DNA.
Nitrogenous base found only in RNA.
One of the two sugars attached to the nitrogenous base and phosphate group of a nucleotide. Has an oxygen in the second carbon atom.
One of the two sugars attached to the nitrogenous base and phosphate group of a nucleotide. Lacks an oxygen in the second carbon atom.
A phosphate group attached to two sugars with a link in the 5' carbon of one and a link with the 3' carbon hydroxyl group of the other.
The imaginary axis of a DNA molecule.
James Watson and Francis Crick
The two men that first proposed the double helix as the three dimensional construct of a DNA molecule at Cambridge University in 1953.
The way in which two sugar phosphate backbones of DNA run in opposite directions of each other, much like the divided lanes of a highway.
The bonds that hold together base pairs of two DNA strands in the middle.
van der Waals bonds
The bonds that hold stacked bases together in a DNA molecule.
Nitrogenous base that is complementary to thymine(T) and uracil(U).
Nitrogenous base that is complementary to adenine(a) in DNA.
Nitrogenous base that is complementary to cytosine(C).
Nitrogenous base that is complementary to guanine(G).
The way in which the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA are indicative of one another.
Alpha or beta glucose?
Alpha or beta glucose?
beta pleated sheet
Nitrogenous base complementary to adenine(A) in RNA.