- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Assembly of Notables
when nobles went to Versailles to talk about tax reform, called by Calonne
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
cahiers de doleances
statements of local grievances that were drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Later known as Legislative Assembly; French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries
served in the American Revolutionary War both as a general and as a diplomat and was a key figure in the early phases of the French Revolution, serving in the Estates General and the subsequent National Constituent Assembly; led the National Guard
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Night of 4-5 August
In this meeting, the Nation Assembly would abolish the principle of privilege, as all people of France would now be addressed as "Citizen and Citizeness"
Commune of Paris
Louis formally recognizes this new municipal government. It would come to play a vital role in later stages of Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
1789- This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who published the declaration of rights of women and the female citizens.
The Rights of Women
written by Olympe de Gouges and followed the official declaration in each of its 17 articles, but applied it explicitly to women
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Book written by Wollstonecraft which explained that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics
6000 women w/ pikes marched to Versailles, wanted to talk to king about their problems
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Pope Pius VI
denounced the National Assembly for ignoring God and introducing an unlimited freedom that allowed people to think, say, and publish anything they wished about religion (true or not)
Constitution of 1791
said that all 3 estates have equal power in government, National Assembly becomes Legasliative Assembly, absolute monarchy is abolished, forcing the king to obey
In 1797 he became the governor of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) and attempted to lead an Enligtened revolution which causes Napoleon to send troops to Haiti
Count of Artois
Brother of the king and leader of aristocracy who wanted to concede nothing. Emigrated with many others and prepared to agitate abroad and consult with foreign governments on how to overthrow the revolution.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Moderates in revolutionary France who believed monarch has limited powers.
a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government power comes from employment, lower prices, and an end in food shortages
Duke of Brunswick
Commander of the allied Austrian and Prussian army during the French revolution. He threatened to destroy Paris if the French royal family were harmed.
Governed by the French Republic from 1792-95, members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines. Declared the end of the monarchy. Brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife.
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
The French Revolution
In 1789; was where the French people rebelled against their King to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn't last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France.
The Reign of Terror
The period under Robespierre that was known for the thousands executed by the government. It saw threats and plots everywhere and struck down mostly on refractory priests, emigres. Most that were executed were armed rebels, unfortunate citizens, and counterrevolutionaries in the late 18th century
This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome.
In the French Revolution, the moderate deputies in the National Convention. They formed the majority of the assembly's members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Led by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, the Plain initially voted with the moderate Girondins but later joined the Mountain in voting for the execution of Louis XVI. However, in 1794 they helped overthrow Robespierre and other extreme Jacobins.
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Girondist victor of Valmy, made the war declared by the Convention upon Holland, Great Britain, and Spain worse by deserting to the enemy
Committee of Public Safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
A French soldier appointed by the Committee of Public Safety to help reorganize the failing war effort against Austria and Prussia. Carnot did so very effectively and made enough of a name for himself to earn a seat as one of the first members of the Directory. Although he was removed from this position during the overthrow of September 4, 1797, he went on to hold various posts in future governments.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
levee en masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Republic of Virtue
a speech given by Maximilien Robespierre in 1794. In it, provided his political theory. advocates the use of terror in defending democracy, which he equated with virtue. advocated many of the ideals expressed in the French Constitution of 1793.The "Republic of Virtue" was part of the dechristianization of the French Revolution. The leaders renamed the cathedral Notre Dame de Paris to 'The Temple of Reason. 'The new French Revolutionary Calendar was created too
Cult of the Supreme Being
Robespierre's attempt to an alternative to Christianity with this DEISTIC cult
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
followers of Hebert who believed in Dechristianization - wiping religion completely from France
Those who were opposed to Robespierre; Robespierre was captured and Guillotined by them
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
Council of Ancients
One of the two house legislatures formed after new constitution with Directory in government. Discussed and voted on legislation proposed by second house.
Council of Five Hundred
the lower body of the directory, was to consist of men of at least thirty who were either married/single
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was mortally wounded at Trafalgar (1758-1805)
the position that Napoleon declared himself to seize power of France.
the common people vote yes or no, napoleon instituted it after being first consul
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
The Napoleonic Code
A system of French laws formulated by Napoleon that became the foundation of many European legal systems.
Treaty of Amiens
1802, between France and Great Britain (Second Coalition had already ended at the Treaty of Luneville, 1801). This treaty settled peace with GB. For short period then, 1802 to 1803, there was peace - the only period of peace between 1792 and 1814, when no European power was at war with another.
Land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains purchased from France for 15 million dollars. It doubled the size of the US at the time, getting more land than the US wanted.
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
consisted of Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia, defeated by Napoleon in brilliant victories (ony defeat was off southern coast of Spain)(stopped invasion of England and ensure British Naval supremacy)
Battle of Ulm
1805- austria and russia push west, napoleon surrounds them and forces surrender of austria
1805- victory against Austria and Russia that allowed Napoleon to be recognized as King of Italy
Confederacy of the Rhine
After abolishing HRE, Napoleon created this, a loose grouping of 16 German states that were placed under the influence of France.
Battle of Jena
the battle in 1806 in which Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Treaty of Tilsit
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
Baron von Stein
During Napoleon, Along with Count von Hardenberg, He was responsible for many Prussian administrative and social reforms. He looked to fight French power, not to reduce the power of the monarch.
army of 500,000 men made by Napoleon to beat Alexander I when he refused to obey the Continental System
Patriotic war of 1812
When Napoleon invades Russia when 150,000 men are killed because Russia just didnt fight back and winters were cold as hell; didnt have supplies
Battle of the Nations
While Britain forces under Duke of Wellington push into France through Spain, a combined Russia, Prussian, and Austrian force enter eastern France.
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I
First Peace of Paris
Signed by the Allies with France in May 1814 and reestablished the French frontiers at the 1792 boundaries
Second Peace of Paris
declared French frontiers restricted to the boundaries of 1790 and exacted from France an indemnity of 700 million francs. Also required France to return stolen art treasures.
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Frederick William III
Prussian Rep at Congress of Vienna
Russian rep at Congress of Vienna
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna