Anatomy Exam 2

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End Diastolic Volume (EDV)

the amount of blood in the ventricle available to be pumped out of the heart during one contraction

End Systolic Volume (ESV)

the amount of blood left in the ventricle at the end of one contraction

Stroke Volume (SV)

the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during one contraction

Cardiac Output (CO)

the amount of blood circulated by the heart in one minute

Given the following parameters: blood capillary pressure
blood capillary hydrostatic pressure: 27 mm Hg
blood osmotic pressure:12 mm Hg
interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure: 3 mm Hg
interstitial fluid osmotic pressure: 2 mm Hg
What would the reabsorption pressure be?

A. 14 mm Hg
B. 16 mm Hg
C. 10 mm Hg
D. 34 mm Hg

(27-3) - (12-2)
24 - 10
A. 14 mm Hg

Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest

A. Capillaries
B. Arterioles
C. Large veins

B. Arterioles

Site where exchanges of food and gases are made

A. Capillaries
B. Arterioles
C. Large veins

A. Capillaries

Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance

A. Capillaries
B. Arterioles
C. Large veins

B. Arterioles

Site where blood pressure is lowest

A. Capillaries
B. Arterioles
C. Large veins

C. Large veins

During exercise

A. venous return increases
B. both cardiac output and stroke volume increases
C. vasodilation occurs at the active skeletal muscles
D. all of the above
E. A and C only

D. all of the above

Stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors known as _____ are located in some artery walls.

A. nociceptors
B. elasticeptors
C. chemoreceptors
D. baroreceptors

D. baroreceptors

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

A. cisterna chyli
B. hepatic portal vein
C. right lymphatic duct
D. dural sinus
E. thoracic duct

E. thoracic duct

Forces that regulate bulk flow in the capillaries include

A. hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
B. hydraulic pressure and diffusion
C. gravity and diffusion
D. gravity and hydraulic pressure
E. gravity and osmotic pressure

A. hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure

As blood travels from arteries to veins,

A. pressure builds
B. diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller
C. flow becomes turbulent
D. pressure drops
E. viscosity increases

D. pressure drops

Restoring lost fluid from the capillaries back to the circulatory system is one of the major functions of the _____ system.

A. lymphatic
B. urinary
C. immune
D. thirst quenching
E. digestive

A. lymphatic

If blood pressure doubled at the same time that the peripheral resistance doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be

A. halved
B. doubled
C. 1/16 as much
D. 1/16 time greater
E. unchanged

E. unchanged

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is important because

A. it reflects the difference in time that systole lasts compared to diastole
B. it represents the driving pressure for blood flow
C. it forces the practitioner to do math, thus they must pay attention to the valves obtained
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C

B. it represents the driving pressure for blood flow

The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called

A. rugae
B. Peyer's patches
C. villi
D. islets of Langerhans

B. Peyer's patches

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, her mean arterial pressure would be

A. 80 mm Hg
B. 40 mm Hg
C. 100 mm Hg
D. 200 mm Hg
E. 93 mm Hg

C. 100 mm Hg

Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ______ .

A. two-way valves
B. skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
C. contraction of the vessels themselves
D. the pumping action of the heart

b. skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the

A. pH rises
B. vessel constricts
C. level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases
D. level of oxygen at the tissue increases
E. all of the above

C. level of carbon dioxide at the tissue increases

Which statement best describes arteries?

A. all carry blood away from the heart
B. all contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood
C. only large arteries are lined with endothelium
D. all carry oxygenated blood to the heart

A. all carry blood away from the heart

The first heart sound is heard when the

A. blood enters the aorta
B. AV valves open
C. atria contract
D. AV valves close
E. semilunar valves close

D. AV valves close

Left ventricular pressure is higher than pressure in the aorta during

A. artrial systole
B. ventricular diastole
C. ventricular systole
D. A and C
E. all of the above

C. ventricular systole

Each of the following paracrines may cause vasodilation except

A. nitric oxide
B. Ca2+
C. CO2
D. H+ ions from metabolic acids
E. K+

B. Ca2+

During isovolumic contraction,

A. both the AV valves and the semilunar valves are closed
B. the ventricle contract
C. blood is pushed into the aorta and pulmonary artery
D. A and B
E. A and C

B. the ventricles contract

The muscular layer of a blood vessel in the

A. tunica interna
B. tunica intima
C. tunica media
D. tunica adventitia
E. tunica externa

C. tunica media

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

A. blood flow to the kidneys increases
B. blood will be diverted to the digestive organs
C. the skin will be cold and clammy
D. capillaries of the active muscles will be filled with blood

D. capillaries of the active muscles will be filled with blood

The fastest rate of autorhythmicity (autodepolarization) is normally carried out by the

A. SA node
B. bundle of His
C. AV node
D. Purkinje fibers

A. SA node

The lymphatic capillaries are _____ .

A. completely impermeable
B. more permeable than blood capillaries
C. less permeable than blood capillaries
D. as permeable as blood capillaries

B. more permeable than blood capillaries

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?

A. turbulence (smoothness of flow)
B. vascular resistance
C. vascular viscosity
D. vessel diameter
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Compared to arteries, the velocity of flow of blood through the capillaries is

A. about the same
B. at least twice as fast
C. at least 10 times faster
D. much slower
E. impossible to predict without more information

D. much slower

The differences between systolic and diastolic pressures is called the _____ pressure.

A. critical closing
B. circulatory
C. mean arterial
D. blood
E. pulse

E. pulse

If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be

A. four times greater
B. unchanged
C. 1/4 as much
D. halved
E. doubled

E. doubled

Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in

A. capillaries
B. venules
C. veins
D. arteries
E. arterioles

A. capillaries

Skeletal muscles at rest receive about _____ of the cardiac output. During exercise, they receive as much as ______ .

A. 85%, 85%
B. 85%, 20%
C. 20%, 20%
D. 20%, 85%
E. none of the above

D. 20%, 85%

Compared to arteries, veins

A. have thinner walls
B. have a pleated endothelium
C. hold their shape better when cut
D. are more elastic
E. have more smooth muscle in their tunica media

A. have thinner walls

Myogenic autoregulation means that

A. stretched smooth muscle in a blood vessel constricts reflexively
B. blood vessel diameter is adjusted by centers in the brain through monitoring blood pressure in areas throughout the body
C. increased blood pressure in a vessel triggers relaxation in that vessel
D. A and C
E. B and C

A. stretched smooth muscle in a blood vessel constricts reflexively

Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except

A. increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
B. decrease in blood volume
C. increased levels of aldosterone
D. decreased peripheral resistance
E. all will lead to a decrease in blood pressure

C. increased levels of aldosterone

Which of the following is true about veins?

A. veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs
B. venous valves are formed from the tunica media
C. up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time
D. veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall

A. veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs

the main control of peripheral resistance occurs in the

A. arteriole
B. artery
C. vein
D. venule
E. capillary

A. arteriole

Select the correct statement about blood flow

A. blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output
B. it is greater where resistance is highest
C. it is measured in mm Hg
D. it is relatively constant through all body organs

A. blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output

_____ is to contraction as _____ is to relaxation

A. Systole; diastole
B. Filling; relaxing
C. Diastole; systole
D. Ejection; filling
E. both A and D

A. Systole; diastole

ADH and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for

A. a heavy meal
B. a heart attack
C. a serious hemorrhage
D. prolonged exercise
E. hypertension

C. a serious hemorrhage

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance except one. Identify the exception

A. increased sympathetic stimulation
B. vasodilation
C. elevated levels of epinephrine
D. factors that cause increased hematocrit
E. irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques

B. vasodilation

Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension?

A. 140/90 in a 70-year-old woman
B. 120/80 in a 30-year-old man
C. 110/60 in a 20-year-old woman
D. 170/96 in a 50-year-old man

A. 140/90 in a 70-year-old woman
D. 170/96 in a 50-year-old man

During the period of ventricular filling _____ .

A. the atria remain in diastole
B. it is represented by the P wave on the ECG
C. blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles
D. pressure in the heart is at its peak

A. the atria remain in diastole
C. blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles

The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart.
1. the Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches

A. 4,2,3,5,1
B. 4,3,2,5,1
C. 3,2,4,5,1
D. 3,5,4,2,1
E. 1,4,3,2,5

B. 4,3,2,5,1

Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the output side to the input side of cardiovascular flow circuit
1. venules
2. arteioles
3. capillaries
4. elastic arteries
5. medium veins
6. large veins
7. muscular arteries

A. 5,6,1,3,2,7,4
B. 2,7,6,3,1,5,6
C. 7,4,2,3,1,5,6
D. 4,7,2,3,1,5,6
E. 6,5,1,3,2,7,4

D. 4,7,2,3,1,5,6

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