Advanced Language Practice (Units 1-7)

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Created by merging the Units needed for the 2011 Practical English IV exam. Some small mistakes were corrected.

allegedly

if someone .... does something, another person says that they have done it, even though this has not been proved (adverb)

amateur

someone who does something because they enjoy it instead of as a job

appeal

if something ....s to you, you like it or want it

armbands

plastic rings filled with air, worn around each arm by people learning to swim (plural)

aspect

a particular part, feature, or quality of something -> a system of rules that covers almost every ... of their lives (singular)

aspiring

hoping and trying to be successful at something, especially in your career -> an ... actor

association

a group of people who have joined together because they have similar interests or aims; a connection between two things

beneficial

something that is ... has a good effect or influence on someone or something

capability

the ability to do something

compass

a piece of equipment used for finding your way, with a needle that always points north

confederation

a group of people or organizations that are united

confidence

the belief that you are able to do things well -> You should have more ... in your own abilities.

contribute

to give money, goods, or your time and effort in order to achieve something, especially when other people are also helping -> Many local businesses offered to ... to the school rebuilding fund.

dedication

the large amount of time and effort that someone spends on something -> The project has been a success, thanks to the ... of all of our staff.

diversion

a change in the road or path that you take to get somewhere because the usual road or path is closed

do-it-yourself

the activity of making or repairing things yourself instead of paying someone to do it for you

exhaustion

a feeling of being extremely tired and without energy

facilities

something such as a room or piece of equipment that is provided at a place for people to use -> The hotel has excellent leisure ... (plural).

flipper

a wide flat rubber shoe that you use to swim faster

flourish

to grow well and be healthy; to be very successful

forbidden

not allowed according to a rule, law, or custom

goggle

to look at someone or something in a way that shows you are very surprised or impressed by them

heat (race)

a game or race at the start of a competition, the winners of the ... then compete against each other at the next stage

helmet

a hard hat that you wear to protect your head

highlight

the most exciting, impressive, or interesting part of an event (singular)

ideal (n)

the best example of something that you can think of or imagine

jog

to run at a slow steady speed, usually for exercise or pleasure

lap

one complete turn around a course in a race

laze about

to relax and enjoy yourself, doing no work

leisure

the time when you are not working or are not busy; activities that you do to relax or enjoy yourself

lens

a piece of curved glass or plastic that makes things seem smaller, bigger, or clearer

mask

something that you wear to cover part or all of your face in order to protect it from something harmful such as poisonous gas, bacteria, or smoke

mood swing

a sudden, unexpected change in the way that someone feels and behaves, especially when they become very angry or unhappy (singular)

novice

someone who is just beginning to learn a skill or subject; someone who has entered a religious community but is not yet a full member

nutritional

concerning food as something that keeps you healthy

occurence

something that happens, especially something unexpected and unpleasant -> computer errors are a common ... (singular)

opponent

someone who is competing against you (singular)

performance-enhancing drugs

something taken illegally by someone involved in sport to make them stronger, faster etc. (plural)

peter out

to gradually become smaller or weaker before coming to an end or disappearing completely

positive

believing that good things will happen or that a situation will get better

psychological

involving or affecting your mind; connected with the study of how your mind works

pump

a piece of equipment for making a liquid or gas move into or out of something -> an air ...

ratio

a relationship between the sizes of two numbers or amount -> a teacher-student ... of 1:20 (=1 teacher for every 20 students)

rucksack

a bag that you carry on your back, used when you are walking long distances or travelling to several different places

scuba diving

the activity of swimming under water with a container of air on your back and a tube for breathing through

sponsor

to pay for or give money to an event, a television or radio programme, a website etc as a way to advertise your products or services

stress

a worried or nervous feeling that stops you relaxing, caused, for example, by pressure at work or financial or personal problems

strive

to make a lot of effort to achieve something -> to ...

surpassed

even better than what was expected or hoped for

thrive

to become very successful, happy, or healthy

tripod

an object with three legs that is used for supporting something such as a camera

trying

difficult to deal with in a way that makes you annoyed or tired -> We've all had a very ... day.

turn a blind eye

to pretend you do not notice something, because you should do something about it but you do not want to

undergo

to experience something, especially something that is unpleasant but necessary

water chute

a tube or a smooth narrow open surface in a swimming pool that people slide down

abandon

to stop something that you are doing or planning to do, especially because it is too difficult to continue -> I finally ...ed my attempt to learn to drive.

accelerate

to happen or make something happen at a faster rate; if a vehicle ...s, it moves faster

aground

if a ship runs ..., it becomes stuck on a piece of ground under the water, where the water is not deep enough

air pollution

chemicals and other substances that have a harmful effect on air

alight

burning; if someone's face or eyes are ... , their expression shows a feeling such as excitement or happiness

alternative

different from something else and able to be used instead of it; not traditional

argument

an angry disagreement between people

ascend

to climb a mountain, stairs etc; if a road, path, or set of stairs ...s , it goes up

circumstance

a fact or condition that affects a situation

civic

relating to a town or city, especially to its government and public activities; relating to the people who live in a town or city or the duties and responsibilities that they have as citizens

collide

if people or things ..., they crash into each other

common

happening frequently, or existing in large amounts or numbers; used, done, or shared by two or more people

compensate

to pay someone money because they have suffered an injury or loss; to change or remove the bad result of something

completion

the process of finishing an activity or job; the time when an activity or job is finished

conductor (transport)

someone on a bus or train who checks passengers' tickets and collects money

congested

with so many vehicles or people that it is difficult to move around

cram

to put people or things into a space that is too small

current (tide)

a strong movement of water in one direction

deadline

a specific time or date by which you have to do something

deserted

a ... place has no people in it -> .... streets

dismount

to get off something such as a horse or bicycle

document (vb)

to record something in writing or on film

domestic

relating to people's homes and family life; relating to the country being talked about, and not other countries

dune

a hill of sand on a beach or in a desert

endanger

to put someone or something into a situation where they might be harmed or damaged

enormous

very large in size or quantity

eternal

continuing for ever or for a very long time

financial

involving money

gracefully

smoothly, attractively; in a way showing good manners and respect for other people

grizzly bear

a very large bear with brown fur that lives in the mountains of the north-western US

haunt (n)

a place that someone visits often because they enjoy going there

heyday

the period of time when a person, idea, or object is most successful or popular

initiative

the ability to decide in an independent way what to do and when to do it -> Employees are encouraged to use their ... if faced with a problem.

justified

if you are ... in doing something, you have a good reason for doing it and it is right that you should do it

mound

a pile of something such as earth or stones; a small hill, especially one that has been made by people

peak period

time, period etc is when the largest number of people are doing or using something -> Travelling at ...s is more expensive. (two words, singular)

occasional

happening sometimes, but not frequently or regularly (adjective)

passer-by

someone who is walking past a place, especially when an accident or violent event happens

rambler

someone who goes for long walks for enjoyment

rarely

not often

refuge

a place where you go to protect yourself from something dangerous or threatening

relatively

in comparison with someone or something similar -> a ... small basement flat

remotely

far away from anywhere or anyone else; from a distance

resemble

to be similar to someone or something, especially in appearance -> to ... something.

restriction

a rule, action, or situation that limits or controls someone or something -> travel ...

saturate

to make something completely wet -> Heavy rains ... fields and pastures.

schedule

a plan of activities or events and when they will happen

skid

to slide across the ground in an uncontrolled way -> The van ...ded to a stop right in front of the bus.

static

if something is ..., it does not move or change

stationary

not moving

steward

a man whose job is to look after the passengers on a plane, train, or ship, especially serving them with food and drinks.

stranded

left somewhere with no way of going anywhere else => Hundreds of passengers were left ... at the airport.

swarm

a large group of insects flying or moving together (singular)

throngs

a large crowd of people

undergrowth

small thick bushes that cover the ground, especially between larger trees in a forest

underpass

part of a road or path that goes under another road or under a railway

vehicle

a machine that you travel in or on, especially one with an engine that travels on roads, for example a car, bus, van, truck, or motorcycle (singular)

vital

very important, necessary, or essential; full of energy and life

wastes (n)

the useless materials, substances, or parts that are left after you use something -> toxic ...

widespread

happening or existing in many places, or affecting many people

wilderness

an area of land where people do not live or grow crops and where there are no buildings -> the Alaskan ...

according to

used for saying that something changes or is different depending on the situation; if you do something .... a plan or system, you do it in a way that agrees with this plan or system

advocate

to publicly support a particular policy or way of doing things

assurance

a feeling or attitude of being certain that something is true; a statement that something will happen or is true, made in order to remove any doubt about it

assure

to tell someone that something will definitely happen or is definitely true, especially in order to remove doubt about it; to do everything that you can in order to make certain that something happens

authority

the power to make decisions or tell people what to do; an organization or institution that controls something, often a public service

baffled

if you are ... from someone's behaviour or from some problem etc., you cannot understand it or solve it

basis

the important ideas, facts, or actions from which something can develop

bear out

to show that something is true or that someone is telling the truth -> Scientific evidence ...s ... the claim that stress and disease are linked. -> to ... ...

boost

to make someone feel more positive or more confident; to try to make people want to buy a product, visit a place etc, by talking about it publicly in a very positive way

chaos

a situation in which everything is confused and in a mess

closure

the process of temporarily preventing people from using a place, for example a road or bridge

combination

something that combines several things; the process of putting, using, or mixing things together

common knowledge

something that everyone knows

concerned

giving your attention to something because you think it is important -> He's more ... with what people think of him than anything else.

concerned (involved in sth)

involved in something, or affected by something -> It was a difficult time for all ... (=for everyone who was involved).

concrete (adj)

based on facts and information -> Let me give you a ... example of what I mean.

confidence

the belief that you are able to do things well -> He's a nice boy, but he doesn't have much ... .

controversial

a ... subject, opinion, or decision is one that people disagree about or do not approve of

debatable

something that is ... is not certain because it is possible for people to have different opinions about it

decline

to become less or worse; to say politely that you will not accept something or do something

detain

to keep someone in a police station or prison and not allow them to leave; to keep someone in hospital because they are too ill to leave

disclaim

to say that you do not have any responsibility for something, knowledge of something, or interest in something

disguise

to make changes in the way that someone looks so that other people will not recognize them -> She arrived at his home ... as a man.

disposal

the process of getting rid of something -> the ... of nuclear waste at sea

doubtful

not feeling certain about something; not certain or likely to happen or be true

dweller

someone who lives in a particular type of place -> city/country/cave ... (singular)

electorate

all the people who are allowed to vote in an election

event

an organized occasion such as a party or sports competition; something that happens, especially something that involves several people

exaggerated

described in a way that makes it seem better, worse, larger, more important etc than it really is; done in an extreme way that does not seem sincere or natural (adjective)

expansion

the process of making a business, organization, or activity grow by including more people, moving into new areas, selling more products etc

extensive

spreading over a large area; very large in amount or degree; involving a lot of details and information (adjective)

foreseeable

a ... event or time is one that can easily be imagined or known about before it happens

further to

used especially in letters to show that you are referring to a previous letter or conversation -> ... our recent telephone conversation, I am writing to confirm our meeting.

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