an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are aware.
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle. satisfying the id's desires in way that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
the childhood stages of development
Pleasure centers on the mouth--sucking, biting, chewing
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Dormant Sexual feelings
Maturation of sexual interests
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Our mental life is unconscious; childhood shapes our personalities and ways of becoming attached to others, and that we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, and values
The Humanistic Perspective
emphasizes that growth potential of healthy people; includes Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
This person believed that we were motivated by a hierarchy of needs and that we ultimately seek self-actualization.
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation of fulfill one's potential
Person believed that people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and empathetic and unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" in humanistic psych
Humanistic Psychologists use ________ to evaluate people.
Pioneer of Trait Psychology
____________ researchers search for identifiable patterns of behavior or conscious motives that describe basic dimensions of personality.
Ancient Greek personalities
Depressed Ancient Greek personalities
Cheerful Ancient Greek personalities
Unemotional Ancient Greek personalities
Irritable Ancient Greek personalities
Classified people by body type
Fat, Relaxed, Jolly
Muscular, bold, and physically active
skinny, high strung, solitary
Myers-Briggs Type Inventory
based off of Carl Jung's archetypes, a 126 question based on preferences
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Moody, Anxious, Rigid, Sober, Pessimistic, Reserved, Unsociable, Quiet
Passive, Careful, Thoughtful, Peaceful, Controlled, Reliable, Even-tempered, Calm
Touchy, Restless, Aggressive, Excitable, Changeable, Impulsive, optimistic, Active
Sociable, Outgoing, Talkative, Responsive, Easygoing, Lively, Carefree, Leadership
used extraversion-introversion and stability-instability- as axes describing personality variation
Empirically Derived Test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between them
The Big Five Personality Factors
Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
founder of positive psychology
founder of learned helplessness
Positive Subjective Well-being
Happiness with the present, and optimism about the future define the movement's first pillar: positive subjective well-being
focuses on exploring and enhancing virtues virtues such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self control, leadership, wisdom and spirituality
seeks to foster positive social ecology, including healthy families, communal neighborhoods, effective schools, socially responsible media, and civil dialogue