Kaplan AP Human Geography 2011 Part 3 Chapter 6

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Acid Rain

Describes any form of precipation with an unusually low pH value. The low pH value is the result of pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which chemically alters water droplets. The burning of fossil fuels increases occurences of acid rain.

Air Pollution

The presence of unnatural human products in the atmosphere as a result of human activities (e.g., the presence in the air of the by-products of burning fossil fuels).

Debt-For-Nature Swap

The forgiveness of debts in exchange for setting aside land for conservation or preservation; this swap is of interest to many less developed countries that have tallied up large debts to more developed countries and feel pressure to repay them.


Using the natural beauty of the land as a selling point to promote tourism, which then provides the necessary funds to preserve that ecological area and, often, sustain the associated human community.

Fossil Fuels

Nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, created by the breakdown of carbon-based sediment and, over time and under pressure, formed into the resources that we use today.

Geothermal Power

An alternative energy source that uses the heat from the Earth's interior to heat homes and businesses on the surface of the Earth.

Greenhouse Effect

The gradual warming of the Earth's atmosphere due to pollutants (greenhouse gases), primarily from more developed countries, which keep the warmer air closer to the Earth's surface.

Hydroelectric Power

The use of water to create electricity.

Nonrenewable Resources

These resources take thousands of years to be produced and cannot replenish themselves.

Nuclear Power

A controversial form of alternative energy, _______ _____ needs the nonrenewable resources such as uranium or plutonium for its production and creates long-lasting, dangerous waste products. It is, however, the most powerful energy source known.The two types of this power are fission and fusion.

Open Pit Mine

A mine in which the land is removed and the resources are extracted in the open air.


The removal of a resource from the Earth in order to obtain energy.

Renewable Resources

Resources that have the ability to replenish themselves in nature relatively quickly, thereby being infinitely available to consumers.


The amount of a resource that is left in the ground yet to be used.

Resource Crisis

The eventual depletion of the fossil fuels on which energy-dependant economies rely heavily.

Shaft Mine

A mine in which tunnels are dug horizontally under the surface of the Earth and shafts are placed deep into the Earth.

Solar Energy

The use of the sun's heat to create electricity. It is one of the best renewable resources available because of its accessibility and cleanliness.


The killing off of landscape to built a new one, ________ uses land for economic purposes in the sense that the intention is to destroy the previously existing landscape.

Tragedy of the Commons

Garrett Hardin's term for the idea that humans will inevitably do what is best for themselves despite what is best for the public good.

Wind Energy

Using the movement of wind to generate power by spinning the blades of windmills in wind parks, which then spin turbines, which then produce electricity. One of the most promising types of renewable energy.

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