heart lecture

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Questions & Answers from Aprils lectures

Name the exit(s) from the Right Atrium and where does the blood go.

1- Tricuspid valve- opens to the right ventricle

Name the entrance(s) to the Right Atrium, and where does the blood come from.

3- inferior vena cava (below the heart), superior vena cava(above the heart), coronary sinus(from the heart)

Name the exit(s) from the Right Ventricle and where does the blood go.

Pulmonic Valve is the door, 2 pulmonary arteries (right and left) are the passage ways to the lungs- the RV outflow.

Name entrance(s) to the Right Ventricle and where does the blood come from.

1- tricuspid valve, blood comes from the right Atrium, or RV -inflow

Name exit(s) from the Left Atrium and where does the blood go.

1- mitral valve, blood flows into the left ventricle.

Name entrance(s) to the Left Atrium and where does the blood come from.

4 pulmonary veins- 2 superior right and left 2 inferior right and left, blood comes from the lungs

Name exit(s) from the Left Ventricle.

3- Blood leaves the LV through the Aortic valve, then to the Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery -LV outflow

Name entrance(s) to the Left Ventricle where does the blood come from.

1- mitral valve - blood comes from the left atrium LV inflow

Describe the shape of the Right Ventricle

Triangle

Describe the shape of the Right Atrium

Almost oval

Describe the shape of the Left Ventricle

Bullet shape or Prolate ellipse

Describe the shape of the Left Atrium

pear shaped

Pressure in the Right Atrium

5 - 8 mm Hg (the weight of one piece of paper)

Pressure in the Right Ventricle

25 mm Hg systolic / 5 mm Hg diastolic

Pressure in the Left Atrium

10 mm Hg

Pressure in the Left Ventricle

120 mm Hg systolic / 10 mm Hg diastolic

Pressure in the Pulmonary Vein

25 mm Hg systolic / 10 mm Hg diastolic

Pressure in the Aorta

120 mm Hg systolic / 80 mm Hg diastolic

What is the first organ to develop and when.

The heart at 21 days

What is the most common defect in infants?

Heart defects, because the heart develops at 21 days Mother may not know she is pregnant and maybe drinking and smoking.

When can regurgitation happen.

Only when the valves are closed.

Why do we see damage occur in the Brachiocephalic artery.

More congestion because of the amount and pressure of the blood flow, more plaque build up here.

If plaque build up occurs in the Brachiocephalic artery what happens.

Less blood flow to the right side of the brain (stroke)

The right side of the brain controls which side of the body?

The left side of the body

How many chambers in the heart?

4 RA,RV,LA,LV

How many valves in the heart?

4 TV, MV, PV, AV

What type of blood is in the Right Atrium.

Deoxygenated

What type of blood is in the Right Ventricle.

Deoxygenated

What type of blood is in the Left Atrium.

Oxygenated

What type of blood is in the Left Ventricle.

Oxygenated

Describe the location of the heart in the body.

Central 1/3 (third) of the chest cave
1/3 (30 percent) of the heart is behind the sternum 2/3 (70 percent) is in the left chest

What is normal blood pressure?

120 / 80 mm Hg

What is significant about the Left Atrium appendage?

It is a potential site for thrombosis formation.

What is the display of ultrasound images on a screen called?

A sector

When a heart transplant is preformed do they only transplant a new heart, explain.

No -they transplant the whole unit (heart and lungs) Veins and arteries cannot be attached to a new heart.

What is the most common birth defect of the heart?

V.S.D. Ventral Septum Defect, Symptoms are detected right away and treated.

What is V.S.D. Ventral Septum Defect? Explain the symptoms.

The inter ventricular septum has a hole in it, i.e. a hole between the two ventricles. Symptoms are detected right away because of the pressure difference, LV (120 mm HG) and the RV (25 mm HG)

What is A.S.D. Ventral Septum Defect?

The inter aterial septum has a hole in it, i.e. a hole between the two atriums.

Do infants with A.S.D. (Ventral Septum Defect) show symptoms? explain.

No, Symptoms are not exhibited because of the low pressure difference the LA (10 mm HG) and the RA (5 mm HG) So A.S.D. is most commonly found in adults.

Describe the right border of the heart, what you can see with ultra sound.

RA- Right Atrium

Describe the left border of the heart, what you can see with ultra sound.

LV & LA left atrium, left ventricle

Describe the inferior border of the heart, what you can see with ultra sound.

RA, RV, LV right atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle

Describe the superior border of the heart, what you can see with ultra sound.

Aortic vessels and pulmonary vessels

Name the leaflets of the tricuspid valve.

3 leaflets: longest -Septal, medium -anterior, smallest -posterior

Name the leaflets of the pulmonary valve.

3 semi circles leaflets all the same size, Right, Left and Posterior

Name the leaflets of the mitral valve.

2 leaflets: longer-Septal, smaller-Posterior

Name the leaflets of the aortic valve.

3 semi circles leaflets all the same size, Right, Left and Non

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