clerical pluralism and absenteeism
Many clerics had several benefices at once, yet they seldomly visited them or performed the spiritual responsibilities those offices entailed. Instead they collected revenues from all of them.
The Brethren of Common Life
Holland. A group of pius laypeople who lived in stark simplicity while daily carrying out the Gospel teaching of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, and visiting the sick. Saught to make religion a personal, inner experience.
Believed to secure total remission of penalties for sin, on earth or in purgatory, and ensured swift entry into heaven.
belief of the catholics that the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ, who is fully present in the bread and wine.
The belief that after consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change whereby Christ is really present
also known as the regulatory court, became Calvin's instrument of power. This body was composed of the elders and pastors and was presided over by one of four syndics. It enforced the strictest moral discipline.
Started in 1540s as a reaction to the rise and spread of Protestantism. Involved catholicj efforts to convince or coerce dissidents or heretics to return to the church lest they corrupt the entire community of Catholic believers.
Introduced the reformation in Switzerland. Believed in the supremacy of Scripture, opposed to indulgences, the Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.
Believed that salvation comes NOT through external observances and penance but through a simple faith in Christ.
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to proved education and religious training
England. Divorced Catherin of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. The result was the nationalization of the English church and a break with Rome as he used Parliament to legalize the Reformation.
Pope Alexander VI
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church. The pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America; Father of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia.
Council of Trent
Called not only to reform the church but also to secure reconciliation with the protestants. Dealt with both doctrinal and disciplinary matters. Rejected Lutheran and Calvinist positions. Required bishops to reside in their own dioceses, suppressed pluralism and simony, and forbade the sale of indulgences. Clergy must be educated. Ended secret marriages.
Act of Restraint of Appeals
Declared the English monarch the supreme sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy.
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V recognized Lutheranism. Each prince permitted to determine the religion of his territory.
A letter written by Luther to Archbishop Albert arguing that indulgences undermined the seriousness of the sacrament of penance, and downplayed the importance of charity in Christian life.
Salvation is achieved by faith and good works. Authority rests in the Bible and the teachings of the church. Practiced a clerical, hierarchial institution headed by the pope in Rome.
Salvation comes by faith alone. God, not people, initiates salvation. Authority rests in the Word of God, in the Bible alone. All vocations have equal merit, whether ecclesiastical or secular. There are only 3 sacraments- Baptism, penance and Eucharist (the lords supper)
Originated in Geneva, "a city that was a church." Believed in the omnipotence of God, the insignificance of humanity, and predestination. The most dynamic and influential form of protestantism.
Believed in adult baptism, revelation, religious tolerance, pacifism, and the separation of church and state. Bitterly persecuted.
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Strictly calvinist in Doctrine, adopted a simple and dignified service of worship, and laid great emphasis on preaching. Founded by John Knox