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Final Exam Flashcards

Enculturation

the social process by which culture is transmitted between generations; learned by example

Education

acquisition of a formal body of knowledge often in a place called a school

Critical Thinking

deciding rationally what or what not to believe/careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment

Life Chances

individuals ability to fulfill their potential in society. Easier when born higher up in the 'system'

Outliers

externalities that have a direct affect on a person's life chances

KIPP Program

10,000 hours in a short time and no summers because the people with low income would lose knowledge

Cultural Bias

the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Occurs when people of a culture make assumptions about conventions, including conventions of language, notation, proof and evidence

Social Stratification

unequal distribution of goods and services; becomes a source of conflict.

Open (achieved) System

earn your place; U.S.A.

Closed (ascribed) System

born in place; Hindu caste system

Prestige

social honor (hindu caste system)

Power

when you can get resources to do what you want them to do

Wealth

accumulation of material resources or access to the resources

The American Dream

you can achieve anything if you work hard enough for it

Religion (textbook)

the cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with ultimate problems (meaning of life, death, good and evil, values) of human existence

Religion (fischer's)

social process that helps to order society and provide its members with unity, meaning, peace of mind and a degree of control

Human Universal

something you find in all cultures

Cosmology

set of principles or beliefs about the creation of universe, origin of society, relation of individuals to each other, human kind to nature, nature of life and earth

Unity

creates order and meaning, establishes moral codes, position in society and profound loss (death)

Routine

players attempt to reduce their chance of feeling uncertain, brings order to the world, turns into a ritual, grow out of good performances

Taboo

opposite of rituals' comes from Polynesian word meaning prohibition, breaking leads to bad luck, grow out of bad performances

Fetishes

material objects believed to embody supernatural power that can aid or protect the owner, ex: good luck charms

Sexism

discriminating against someone based on sex

Gender discrimination

discrimination against gender identity

Gender Stratification

unequal distribution of rewards between men and women; males are dominant (privileged)

Misogyny

hatred towards women

Misanthrope

hatred of people

Patriarchy

political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status including basic human rights

Matriarchy

political system ruled by women in which men have inferior social and political status including basic human rights

Patriarchy Language

male=normative (his, he, etc.)
men:bachelor; Mr. (can't tell if married or not)
women: spinster, widow; Miss (single) Mrs. (married) Ms. (can't tell if married or not)

Feminism

the theory or believe in the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes

Sapir-whort hypothesis

language constrains thought. Identity is used as an insult. Ex: ethnicity, "playing like a girl" "that's so gay" "you're being Jewish" "that's retarded"

Cohort

people born within the same life=span that go through major life activities together

Baby Boomer I

→Collective trauma
→Assassinations of MLK, JFK and RFK
→Political un-rest
→Vietnam war
→Walk on moon
→Anti-war protests

Baby Boomers II (Generation Jones)

*'Anonymous generation'
→Watergate
→Nixon resigning
→Cold War
→Oil embargo
→Stressed government
→Huge expectations

Generation X

→Not as many babies
→Challenger explosion
→AIDS
→Safe sex
→Fall of Berlin wall
→Single-Parent Family
→Divorce and 'mothers' in work force
→Emotion Security
→Independent
→Informal
→Entrepreneurial

Generation Y

→Internet
→Most 'child-centric'
→Patriotic
→'Tech-savvy'
→Self-confident: 'cocky' in workplace
→Helicopter parent- tries to control what their child does

Age Cycle

Infancy→Childhood→Adolescence→Adulthood→Old Age

Kinship

the complex system of culturally defined relationships based on marriage, and birth. Can also be socially defined

Descent

functions to guide inheritance, group loyalty, and the formation of families and extended kinship groups

Patrilineal Descent

links relatives through males only

Matrilineal Descent

links relatives through females only

Bilateral Descent

links a person to kin through both males and females simultaneously

Monogamy

married to one person at a time

Polygamy

multiple spouses

Polygyny

one man with multiple wives. Benefits of this can be having more kids, helps with labor, also shows high status in many countries

Polyandry

one woman with multiple husbands. Benefit can be to limit the amount of children in the family

Serial Monogamy

multiple spouses, but one at a time, U.S. has this

Sex

a physical condition related to chromosomes and external sex characteristics. Male, Female, intersex.

Intersex

4% of population. Born with chromosomes of both sexes, external sex characteristics inconsistent with the typical definition of male and female

Gender

all the traits a culture assigns to men and women. NOT sexuality. Scale from masculine to feminine.

Cisgender

someone who's gender identity generally matches w/ what is assigned culturally for their sex

Transgender

identity doesn't match up to physical

Transexual

someone who's gender identity consistently differs from assigned sex - some choose to undergo reassignment surgery. Transexual is an "umbrella term"

Gender Roles

tasks and activities that a culture assigns to men and women. Example: certain jobs

Gender stereotypes

Male: stronger, protectors, reckless, egocentric/selfish, stoic/cold, silent, providers
Females: weaker, damsel in distress, patient/careful, caring/nurturing, emotional/crybabies, dramatic, needy, takers, chatty, understanding

Sexual dimorphism

marked differences in male and female biologies other than sex characteristics. ex: weight, height, strength

Stereotype threat

when a stereotype is internalized to the point where it effects the person's performance

Sexuality

the patterned way in which a person views or expresses the sexual component of his or her personality. A person's habitual, sexual attraction to and activities with persons of the opposite sex (heterosexual), the same sex (homosexual), or both sexes (bisexual). Also can be described as "Sexual Orientation"

Lesbian

a way of life for persons who desire and have sex with people of the same sex, women in this case

Gay

a way of life for persons who desire and have sex with people of the same sex, men in this case

Bisexual

a person's habitual sexual attraction to and sexual activity with persons of both sexes

Queer

in contemporary usage - used as an inclusive unifying term. Can be taken positively or negatively.

Questioning

trying to figure out where they fall on the spectrum

Ally

supportive of the LGBT community

Heteronormative

base assumption that heterosexuality is the norm.

Homophobia

the fear or hatred toward LGBT community. An ethnocentric reaction of heterosexuals who believe their sexual orientation is natural or the best.

Disability

a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities

TAB

temporarily-able-bodied

People 1st language

used to show that a disability is something that is a part of a person not something that defines who they are. If this language isn't used other words can be considered dehumanizing and can lead to stereotypes.

Invisible disability

disability you cannot see, people sometimes try to keep this hidden. Ex: the spoon theory

Public speech

how we talk in public, refraining from using disrespectful speech because you never know who is listening

Globalization

the accelerating links between nations and people in a world system connected economically, politically, and by modern media and transportation

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

written in response to WWII and Holocaust, most translated book in the world

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