# Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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### solid

definite shape and volume

### types of solids

crystalline and amorphous

### crystalline solids

particles form a regular, repeating pattern and melt at a specific temperature

### amorphous solids

particles are not arranged in a regular pattern and do not melt at a distinct temperature

### liquid

definite volume, but no definite shape

### particles in a liquid

packed close, but move freely around one another

### surface tension and viscosity

properties of liquids

### high

a liquid that flows slowly is said to have this type of viscosity

### low

a liquid that flows quickly is said to have this type of viscosity

### gases

no definite shape or volume

### melting

a solid gains thermal energy and changes to a liquid

### freezing

when a liquid loses thermal energy and changes to a solid

### vaporization

takes place when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas

### evaporation

vaporization that occurs only on the surface of the liquid

### boiling

when vaporization takes place inside as well as outside of a liquid

### air pressure

the boiling point of a substance depends on the ________________________ above

### condensation

occurs when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid

### sublimation

occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas

### dry ice or frozen carbon dioxide

examples of sublimation

### volume, temperature, pressure

three ways gases are measured

### boyle's law

when the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases

### raises

increasing temperature does this to pressure

### charles's law

when the temperature of a gas in increased at constant pressure, its volume increases

### raises

increasing temperature does this to volume

### directly proportional

according to charles's law, volume is ________________________________ to temperature

### inversely

according to boyle's law, pressure varies ________________________ with its volume

### responding variable

vertical axis of a graph

### manipulated variable

horizontal axis of a graph

### pressure

the force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container

Example: