Abnormal Psychology- Chapter 12

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Substance Abuse

A pattern of bx in which people rely on a drug excessively and regularly, bringing damage to their relationships, fx poorly at work, or putting themselves or others in danger.

Substance Dependence

A pattern of bx in which people organize their lives around a drug, possibly building a tolerance to it or experiencing withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking it, or both. Also called addition.

Tolerance

The adjustment that the brain and the body make to the regular use of certain drugs so that even larger doses are needed to archive the earlier effects.

Withdrawal

Unpleasant, sometimes dangerous relations that may occur when people who use a drug regularly stop taking or reduce their dosage of the drug

Alcohol

Any beverage containing ethyl alcohol, including beer, wine, and liquor

Polysubstance Use

Individuals who take more than one drug or substances at a time.

Alcohol Dehydrogenase

A stomach enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it enters the blood Men have more of the enzyme then women do.

Delirium Tremens (DTs)

A dramatic withdrawal reaction experienced by some people who are alcohol-dependent. It consist of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations. Also called alcohol withdrawal delirium.

Korsakoff's Syndrome

An alcohol related disorder marked by extreme confusion, memory impairment, and other neurological symptoms.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

A cluster of problems in a child, including low birthrate, irregularities in the head and face, and intellectual deficits, caused by excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy.

Sedative-Hypnotic Drug

A drug used in low doses to reduce anxiety and in higher doses to help people sleep. Also called antianxiety drug.

Barbiturates (Barbies)

Addictive sedative-hypnotic drugs that reduce anxiety and help produce asleep.

Benzodiazephines (Benzies)

The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax

Opioid

Opium or any of the drugs derived from opium, including morphine, heroin, and codeine

Opium

A highly addictive substance made from the sap of the opium poppy

Morphine

A highly addictive substance derived from opium that is particularly effective in relieving pain

Heroin

One of the most addictive substances derived from opium

Endorphins

Neurotransmitters that help relieve pain and reduce emotional tension. They are sometimes referred to as the body's own opioids.

Cocaine

An addictive stimulant obtained from the coca plant. it is the most powerful natural stimulant known.

Free-base

A technique for ingesting cocaine in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated from processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled with a pipe.

Crack

A powerful, ready-to-smoke free-base cociane

Cocaine Intoxication

High doses of cocaine create symptoms like poor muscle coordination, grandiosity, bad judgment, anger, aggression, compulsive bx, anxiety, and confusion.

Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder

Hallucinations or delusions experienced during cocaine use.

Amphetamine

A stimulant drug that is manufactured in the lab

Methamphetamine

A powerful amphetamine drug that has experienced a surge in popularity in recent years, posing major health and law enforcement problems

Caffeine

The world's most widely used stimulant, most often consumed in coffee

Hallucinogen

A substance that causes powerful changes primarily in sensory perception, including strengthening perceptions and producing illusions and hallucinations.

LSD

A hallucinogenic drug derived from ergo talkaloids

Stimulants

Substances that increase the activity of the CNS, resulting in increased blood pressure and heart rate, great alertness, and speeded-up behavior.

Cannabis Drugs

Drugs produced from varieties of the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa. They cause a mixture of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects.

Marijuana

One of the cannabis drugs, derived from buds, leaves, and flowering tops of hemp plant

Tetrahydrocannabinoal (THC)

The main active ingredient of cannabis substances

Cannabis Intoxication

The "overall" high experienced when ingesting cannabis. Phsycial changes include reddening of the eyes, fast heartbeat, increase in blood pressure and appetite, dryness in the mouth, and dizziness.

Cross-Tolerance

Tolerance for a substance one has not taken before as a result of using another substance similar to it.

Synergistic Effect

In pharmacological, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time.

Polysubstance-Related Disorder

A long-term pattern of maladaptive bx centered on abuse of or dependence on a combination of drugs.

Reward Center

A dopamine-rich pathway in the brain that produces feelings of pleasure when activated

Reward-Deficiency Syndrome

A condition, suspected to be present in some individuals, in which the brain's reward center is not readily activated by the usual events in their lives.

Aversion Therapy

A treatment in which clients repeatedly presented with unpleasant stimuli while performing undesirable behaviors such as taking a drug.

Behavioral Self-Control Training (BSCT)

A cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior and to apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking

Relapse-Prevention Training

An approach to treating alcohol abuse that is similar to BSCT and also had clients plan ahead for risky situations and reactions.

Detoxification

Systematic and medically supervised withdrawal from a drug.

Antagonist Drugs

Drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug

Methadone Maintenance Program

An approach to treating heroin dependence in which clients are given legally and medically supervised doses of a substitute drug methadone

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

A self-help organization that provides support and guidance for persons with alcohol abuse or dependence

Residential Treatment Center

A place where people formerly dependent on drugs, live, work, and socialize in a drug-free environment. Also called a therapeutic community

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