belief in spiritual beings
Most modern conceptions follow whose lead?
What are the 3 components in religion?
1. Beliefs about the nature and character of supernatural powers
2. Teachings or traditions that tell of these supernatural powers
3. Rituals intended to influence or direct these powers for the benefit of the group
What is Mana?
super force rather than a being
an organized and stereotyped symbolic behavior intended to influence supernatural powers
What are the 2 classifications of rituals?
1. Conscious purposes
2. When rituals occur
the reasons people give themselves for performing them
rituals are held regularly
are organized and performed whenever some individual or group needs, wants, or asks for them
Rites of passage
a public ceremony or ritual that marks a change in social status, usually brought about or related to increasing age
What are 3 examples of rites of passage?
When does an individual truly become a member of the society?
The formal naming of a child is frequently associated with the conferring of human status.
in many preindustrial societies, the onset of puberty is publicly announced
-Physical trauma is a common part
many marriage rituals focus on elaborate public exchanges of goods and valuables between the families of the bride and the groom over a long period of time, with the actual religious ritual portion of the wedding being limited
Who distinguishes the 4 kinds of religious practices?
What are the 4 kinds of religious practices?
1. Individualistic practices
2. Shaman practices
3. Communal practices
4. Ecclesiastical practices
Individuals intentionally seek out particular spirits or other supernatural powers to protect and help them in their endeavors
-Direct and personal interactions between people and the supernatural
What is vision quest?
An individualistic practice in which a person attempts to enlist the aid of supernatural powers by intentionally seeking a dream or vision
A person with a culturally defined special relationship to supernatural powers, which he frequently uses to cure sickness
-The shaman is the only kind of religious practitioner
What are the 3 ways to become a shaman?
1. Undergo a period of special training
2. Difficult deprivations
3. Shamans are people who have experienced some unusual event
-recovery from a serious illness
Religious practices in which the members of the group cooperate in the performance of rituals intended to benefit all
-No full-time religious specialists
rituals performed to worship or please a kinship group's ancestors
-Full time religious practitioners
-Priests perform rituals that benefit the society as a whole
-Occur in complex societies
What are the 2 reasons that religion being universal is surprising?
1. It can never be proven
2. Religious behavior may not be effective at achieving the goals the performers have in mind
What are the 3 Functions of Religion?
Intellectual/ Cognitive function of religion
Religious beliefs help satisfy the human desire to understand and explain things and events
Psychological function of religion
Religion helps people cope during times of trouble, stress, and anxiety
Social function of religion
Religion instills and maintains common values, enforces conformity to cultural norms, promotes cohesion and cooperation, and promises reward for good deeds and punishment for bad deeds
the performance of rites and spells for the purpose of causing harm to others by supernatural means
the use of psychic power to cause harm to others by supernatural means
Any human action that modifies the utilitarian nature of something for the primary purpose of enhancing its aesthetic pleasure or symbolic communication
Qualities that make objects, actions, or language more beautiful or pleasurable, according to culturally relative and variable standards
Artificial artistic enhancements or beautification of the human body by painting, tattooing, scarification or other means
Arts that are produced in a material or tangible form, including basketry, pottery, textiles, paintings, drawings, sculptures, masks, carvings, and the like
Forms of art such as music, percussion, song, dance, and theater/drama that involve sound or stylized body movements
A worldwide integrated system of buying and selling goods, materials, labor, and services in the global market
Corporations that produce and market goods and services globally
Any changes in population increases and decreases in numbers, as well as shifts in the relative gender, age, and settlement patterns
Global corporate community
The individuals who collectively own and control multinational corporations and local companies that produce and market goods and services globally
Today's global business culture, named by Samuel Huntington after the location in Switzerland where more than 2000 business and political leaders, together with select intellectuals and journalists meet annually
Global Academic Community
The individuals who collectively control, expand, and disseminate academic ideas and knowledge globally
The individuals and corporations involved in the production of news and entertainment that are marketed to a global audience
Individuals who are attempting to preserve the traditional or preexisting norms, values, and world views, which are being challenged by globalization
Individuals who have embraced the new ideas, norms, and values, and world view associated with globalization
The recent political conflict within the US that results from a divergence in basic norms, values, and world views
Over the past 60 year the world population has grown from what to what?
2.5 billion to more than 6.6 billion
Where has most of the growth in the population come from?
Globalization created a culture war between who?
The fundamentalists and the cosmopolitanists
A named social group based on perceptions of shared ancestory, cultural traditions, and common history that culturally distinguish that group from other groups
An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self-determination
A geographical region over which a particular ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights
The highest level of ethnic cohesion and identity, uniting members of different ethnic nationalities on the basis of a shared cultural tradition, usually religious, that collectively distinguishes them from members of other such groups
A country whose political boundaries and thus ethnic composition were established by outside political force; usually a former colonial possession
Ethnically distinct groups of foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists who occupy their historical homelands who are politically subordinate to larger national governments, and who are frequently referred to as "tribal" or "fourth-world" peoples
Cultural knowledge that is widely disseminated by means of a written language
Cultural knowledge that is disseminated orally and is thus known only by members of a local group
What are the 2 main attributes of an ethnic group?
1. Origin Myth of history
2. Ethnic boundary marker
What are indigenous minorities a part of?
Define Indigenous minorities
-100s to 1,000
- live in isolated areas: jungle, mountains, desert
In 2007 the United Nations created what?
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
What are the 2 approaches that anthropologists take on religion?
1. A belief in a supernatural
2. An ideology- beliefs that offer meaning in life
-symbolism, belief systems, behaviors
What are the 6 techniques of religion?
3. Offerings and sacrifices
6. Rites of Passage
The ability to compel the supernatural to act in a certain way
What is a type of magic?
People ask for things and give thanks
Offerings and Sacrifices
asking for something and giving thanks
-blood is shed
A way to obtain otherwise unavailable information necessary in deciding the course of action
People go into a trance and receive knowledge from the supernatural
-speaking in tongues
Speaking in tongues
Rites of passage
Rights that accompany a transition in life
-receiving of instruction
What are the 3 types of rites of passage?
1. Rite of separation
2. Period of transition
3. Period of incorporation
Rite of separation
People are taken somewhere or they wear something to make them stand out and be different
Period of transition
Bodily markings and learning about the new status
Period of Incorporation
the transition to the new status
What are the 2 types of religious practitioners?
Part-time religious practitioners
-hunters and gatherers
Full-time religious practitioners
-marked by special clothing, hairstyle, etc
-represent the group in relation to the supernatural
What are the 4 kinds of cultural change?
A change in gene frequency over time
-long term change
-more and more people are becoming specialists
-no more wealth sharing
-more stratified societies
People are borrowing cultural elements without face-to-face contact
-It is selective
-Material items are much more likely to diffuse than non-material items
It may stimulate culture change
-people make up innovations
Persistent culture contact
-A changes B and B changes A
-2 way process that is selective
What 2 types of culture change are intracultural change?
Evolution and Innovation
What 2 types of cultural change are intercultural?
Diffusion and Acculturation
Who wrote Cocaine and the Economic Deterioration of Bolivia?
What is the main idea of Cocaine and the Economic Deterioration of Bolivia?
The Bolivian cocaine trade has drawn males from the countryside, disrupted communications, destroyed families, unbalanced the local diet, and upset traditional social organization.
Who wrote Taraka's Ghost?
Stanley A. Freed and Ruth S. Freed
What is the main idea of Taraka's Ghost?
The relationship between religion and the anxieties that are caused by stressful and seemingly unmanageable aspects of life. Sita is possessed by Taraka.
Who wrote Baseball Magic?
What is the main idea of Baseball Magic?
Baseball players, much like people in many parts of the world, also turn to supernatural forces to ensure success.
Who wrote Body Ritual among the Nacirema?
What is the main idea of Body Ritual among the Nacirema?
The extensive body ritual of a North American group, the Nacirema, whose houses contain special shrines in which body ritual takes place.
Who wrote Japanese Hi-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture?
Who wrote Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi?
Who wrote Using Anthropology?
What is the main idea of Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture?
Using the example of hip-hop, originally a North American contribution to pop culture, he shows how this entertainment form has been adapted to the club scene in metropolitan Tokyo.
What is the main idea of Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi?
The author describes her role as an applied medical anthropologist on a project aimed at the improvement of infant and child nutrition in the African nation of Malawi.
What is the main idea of Using Anthropology?
The author discusses some of the professional applications of anthropology and argues that there is a basic anthropological perspective that can help anyone cope with the everyday world. He uses the case of a company manager to illustrate this point.