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Meth

One (ane)

Eth

Two (ane)

Prop

Three (ane)

But

Four (ane)

Hept

Seven

F group

Fluero

Cl Group

Chlero

Saturated hydroarbons

ONLY ONE SINGLE BONDS (CnH2n+2)is the equation, they end with letters ane(Alkane)

Alkyl

Also called a radical group,removing the ane ending of Alkanes adding yl, not named by total number of carbons,

Alkenes

Haveing two carbon atoms double bond(unsaturated hydrocarbons), name ends in ene, formula CnH2n,same naming system,the longest chain must contain double bond, lowest position number is assigned to the first carbn atom to which to double bond is attached

Alkynes

Two carbon atoms connected by triple bond, unsaturated, CnH2n-2,end with yne

Cyclic Hydrocarbons

cyclo in front, join together to form a ring,

Meth

One(ane)

Eth

Two(ane)

Prop

Three(ane)

But

Four(ane)

Hept

Seven

2 area of e- density 0 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Linear, Molecular Structure: Linear, Bond angle 180, Polarity NP

3 area of e- density 0 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Planar, Molecular Structure: Trigonal Planar, Bond angle 120, Polarity NP

3 area of e- density 1 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Planar, Molecular Structure: Bent, Bond angle <120, Polarity P

4 area of e- density 0 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Tetrahedral, Molecular Structure: Tetrahedral, Bond angle 109.5, Polarity NP

4 area of e- density 1 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Tetrahedral, Molecular Structure: Trigonal pyramidal, Bond angle <109.5, Polarity P

4 area of e- density 2 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Tetrahedral, Molecular Structure: Bent, Bond angle <<109.5, Polarity P

5 area of e- density 0 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Bipyramidal, Molecular Structure: Trigonal Bipyramidal, Bond angle Axial 90 Equatorial 120, Polarity NP

5 area of e- density 1 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Bipyramidal, Molecular Structure: Seesaw, Bond angle Axial <90 Equatorial <120, Polarity P

5 area of e- density 2 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Bipyramidal, Molecular Structure: T-shaped, Bond angle Axial <<90 Equatorial None, Polarity P

5 area of e- density 3 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Trigonal Bipyramidal, Molecular Structure: linear, Bond angle 180, Polarity NP

6 area of e- density 0 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Octahedral, Molecular Structure: Octahedral, Bond angle 90, Polarity NP

6 area of e- density 1 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Octahedral, Molecular Structure: Square pyramidal, Bond angle <90, Polarity P

6 area of e- density 2 lone pairs of electron

Electronic Structure:Octahedral, Molecular Structure: Square planar, Bond angle 90, Polarity NP

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

it contain a closed ring structure with alternating single and double bonds, name as benzene for the simplest one of the aromatic

Alcohols

Characterized by the functional group --oh(hydroxyl) naming it by replacing the --e with --ol, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by number, choose the lowest number for it, it take precedence over all other group

Alkyl Halides

Halogen can be placed on hydrocarbons to produce alkyl halides,name the lowest number, they have equal rank

Ethers

it contain -o-, it can be eitehr symmetrical or asymmetrical, ether in the end if is symmetrical ethers it would use prefix di-

Aldehydes

O=C(then to the right of C there is a H)replace -e ending with -al, no specify the location since the terminal properties

Ketones

O=C(anything on other two side) replace -ending, with a -one in the longest chain, two way of naming, you could separately designating both ends of the group, but you must add the word ketone at the end

Carboxylic Acids

O=(OH one the right, and whatever on the left) drop -e add -oic acid.

Ester

O=C(the side have O which is the right is R' which name first, name as ate???

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