Musculoskeletal Exam includes
Bone, Joints, Muscles, Tendons, Ligaments
Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Internal rotation, external rotation, circumduction
Bending or Decreasing the angle between bones/limbs
act of stretching or straightening out a flexed limb
Away from the body. (Hitler abducted people)
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
turning outward, away from the midline of the body
moving bone or limb in a circle
Examination of Musculoskeletal Exam includes
Inspection, Palpation, ROM evaluation, Muscle strength
Inspection in Musculoskeletal exam
look for swelling, redness, discoloration, anything abnormal,
Palpation in Musculoskeletal exam
tenderness, heat, nodules, effusions (fluid build up)
range of motion, see if joints move through normal ROM
Over-use syndrome. bursa are sacks that lie in between muscles and joint spaces provide cushioning. inflammation of the bursa
bursa that cushions the shoulder joint. below the acromion. becomes depressed when the arm is elevated. can't raise their arm to head if they have a bad subasprinatus bursa
inflammation of the bicep tendon. applying pressure will hurt.
common. doesn't cause much pain but it can become edema. Truck drivers get this in their left arm.
Inflammation of joints due to the deposit of sodium urate crystals. any flare up causes damage to the joint.
Nodules caused by accumulation of uric acid and destruction of the joints
Chronic pain syndrome. no blood tests, scans, or anything to diagnosis this.
Abnormally formed spine that forms with a curvature. common in teenage girls. If occurring in obese or arthritic patients, will be bad/painful.
curving to the right
curing to the left.
Autoimmune conditions. tissues are attacked by antibodies. mostly the synovial membranes. chronic inflammatory arthritis. Over time, fingers will deviate to the ulnar side.
Swan neck deformity
deformed position of the finger, in which the joint closest to the fingertip is permanently bent toward the palm while the nearest joint to the palm is bent away from it (DIP hyperflexion with PIP hyperextension). common in rheumatoid arthritis
Knuckle looks as if it is being pushed thru a buttonhole. Includes flexion of proximal interphalangeal joint with compensatory hyperextension of distal interphalangeal joint. Common in rheumatoid arthritis.
Slow wear-and-tear on joints. not inflammatory arthritis like gout. have acute flare ups. Use cortisone or NSAIDs. crepitus and heberden's nodes can occur.
Cracking of joints. , grating or crackling sensation or sound
hard or bony swellings in distal interphalangeal joints. indicate osteoarthritis
Large osteophyte accumulation
in osteoarthritis. excess bone growth around the joints.
Osteoarthritis of the spine
Lipping and spurs. can see on x-rays
overgrowth of cartilage around edges of joints; looks like candle dripping
a fixed flexion contracture of the hand where the fingers bend towards the palm and cannot be fully extended (straightened). shortening and thickening of flexible tendon. starts in the digits.
f, swelling from excess FLUID in joint capsule. decreases ROM
Arthrocenetsis of knee effusion
bloody. remove the blood by puncturing the skin and pulling the blood out via a syringe. do this when ligament tears and fills the knee immediately with blood. knee swells up within minutes
a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist. usually requires no treatment.