AP European History: Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe

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chapter 16 terms and notes

"Age of Crisis"

what the seventeeth century is often refered to as

moral economy

the vision of a world in which community needs predominate over competition and profit

popular revolts

revolts that were extremely common caused by shortages of food or the prices of bread

absolutism

dervied from the traditional assumption of power (heirs to the throne) and the belief in the "divine right" of kings

Jean Bodin (1530-1596)

among the first to provide a theoretical basis for absolutist states; believed that only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey the government (strong central gov't); french

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

wrote Leviathan; pessimistic view of human beings: believed that people are truely evil at the root and need a string government to control them

Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)

principle advocate of "divine right of kings" in France; uses the bible to justify it

divine right of kings

the idea that the king was placed on the throne by god and therefore owed his authority to no man or group

first estate

one of the three estates in France; the clergy; 1% of the population

second estate

one of the three estates in France; the nobility; 4% of the population

third estate

one of the three estates in France; the bourgeoisie (middle class), artisans, urban workers, and peasants

the estates

a hierarchy of social orders based on rank and privilege; restored under Henry IV

Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r. 1586-1610)

laid the foundation for France becoming the strongest European power in the seventeenth century; first king of the Bourbon dynasty; converted from Calvanism to Catholicism; issued Edict of Nantes (1598); assassinated in 1610 by a fanatical monk who wanted revenge for the Edict of Nantes

Edict of Nantes (1598)

issued by Henry IV; allowed an amount of religious toleration to the Huguenots (French Calvanists)

nobility of the sword

the old nobility who lost power under the reign of Henry IV; were not allowed to influence the royal council

nobility of the robe

new nobles who purchased their titles from the monarchy; they became high officials in the government and were loyal to the king

Duke of Sully (1560-1641)

finance minister whos reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy

Mercantilism

state control over a country's economy in order to achieve a favorable balancew of trade with other countries

Marie de' Medici

ruled as a regent after Henry IV's assassination for their son Louis XIII

Louis XIII (1610-1643)

put into effect what was to happen in Louis XIV's reign; regency was full of corruption and eventually exiled his regent mother; Cardinal Richelieu was with him his entire reign

Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)

laid the foundation for absolutism in France; was a plitique; created the intendant system

politique

one who places political issues ahead of religious principles

intendant system

creaded by Richelieu; used to weaken the nobility; replaced local officials with civil servants (intendants) who reported directly to the king; made government more efficient and centrally controlled

Peace of Alais (1629)

Huguenots lost their fortified cities and protestant armies; were still allowed to practice Calvanism; issued by Richelieu

Louis XIV (r. 1643- 1715)

the "sun king"; quintessential absolute ruler in European History; personified the idea that soverignty of the state resides in the ruler; strong believer in divine right of kings; "L' etat, c'est moi"; helped France become undisouted major power; longes reign in European history

"L' etat, c'est moi"

"I am the state"; quote of Louis XIV

Fronde (1640's)

a French Civil War; the revolution of nobles against Cardinal Mazarin when Louis XIV was a child; Louis never forgot humiliation and vowed to control the nobility

Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661)

controled France while Louis XIV was a child; caused nobles to revolt agaisnt him creating the Fronde

corvee

forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects

Versailles Palace

palace built under the reign of Louis XIV; with its baroque architecture the palaces the most impressive in all of Europe; helped Louis XIV keep an eye on the nobles who were forced to stay there for part of the year

Edict of Fountainbleau (1685)

revoked Edict of Nantes; Huguenots lost their rights to practice Calvanism;

Jansenists

Catholics who held some Calvanist ideas

bullionism

a nations policy of accumulating as much precious metal (gold and silver) as possilbe while preventing its outward flow to other countries

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1661-1683)

Louis XIV's finance minister under which French mercantilism reached its height; his goal was economic self-sufficiency for France

balance of power

a balance in which no one country would be allowed to dominate the continent since a coaliton of other countrire would rally against a threatening power

War of Devolution (First Dutch War) (1667-1668)

the event in which Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) without declaring war

Second Dutch War (1672-1678)

the event in which Louis XIV invaded the southern Netherlands as revenge for Dutch oppositiion in ther previous war

Peace of Nijmegan (1678-1679)

represented the furthest limit to the expansion of Louis XIV

War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)

in response to another invasion of the Spanis Netherlands by Louis XIV in 1683 the League of Augsburg formed in 1686: HRE, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, Dutch Republic; war ended with status quo the same as prior to the war

War of Spanish Succesion (1701-1713)

caused by the will of Charles II (Hapsburg king) giving all Spanish territories to the grandson of Louis XIV; then a fear of a consolidation of the Spanish and French thrones

Grand Alliance

emerged in opposition to France: England, Dutch Republic, HRE, Brandenburg, Portugal, Savory

Battle of Blenheim (1704)

a turning point in the War of Spanish Succesion begining a series of military defeats for France

Treat of Utrecht (1713)

maintained the balance of power in Europe and ended the expansionism of Lous XIV

Excorial Palace

build by Philip II to demonstrate his power

price revolution

inflation that hurt domestin industtries that were unable to export goods

Spanish Armada (1588)

when England defeated a large fleet of Spanish ships which marks the begining of the decline of the Spanish empire

Treaty of Pyranees (1659)

marked end of Spain as a great power

Baroque

art that reflected the age of absolutism; originally to teach in aconcrete and emotional way and demonstrate the glory and power of the Catholic church

Bernini (1598-1650)

personified baroque architecture and sculptor; statue of David

Schonbrunn

built in response to the Versailles palace

Winter Palace

built in Russia by Peter the Great which was influenced by the Versailles

Carvaggio (1571-1610)

Italian painter; perhaps first important painter of the baroque era

Peter Paul Reubens (1577-1640)

Flemish painter

Diego Velazquez (1599-1660)

Spanish painter; perhaps the greatest court painter of the era

J.S. Bach (1685-1750)

greatest of the baroque composers

constitutionalism

government power islimited by law; there is a selicate balance between the power of goevernment and the rights and liberties of individuals

gentry

wealthy landonwers in the countryside who dominated politics in the House of Commons

House of Commons

Englands lower house in Parliament

Stuart Dynasty

ruled england for most of the seventeenth century

James I (James VI of Scotland) (r. 1603-1625)

english king who believed strongly in the divine right of kings and absolutism; he twice disloved parliament over tax issues

Charles I (r. 1625-1649)

son of James I and also claomed divine right of kings

Petition of Right (1628)

parliament attempted to encourage the king to grant basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases

ship money

all countries now required to pay to outfit ships where before only coastal communities had paid

English Civil War

the event occuring when Charles tried to arrest several Puritans in Parliament but a crown of 4,000 came the their defense; caused Charles to declare war in 1642 against his opponents in the parliament

Cavaliers

supported the king in the English Civil War

Roundheads

opposed the king in the English Civil War (Calvanists)

Oliver Cromwell

military leader of the Roundheads who led the New Model Army to victory in 1649

Pride's Purge (1648)

elements of the New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from parlianemt leaving a "rump parliament" with only 1/5 of the members remaining

Levellers

radical religiious revolutionaries; sought social and political reforms and a more egalitarian society

Diggers

denied Parliants authority and rejected private ownership of land

Quakers

believed in an "inner light," a divine spark that exists within each person; pacifists

The Interregnum (1649-1660)

rule without king under Oliver Cromwell; the Puritans and army ruled

The Protectorate (1653-1659)

Oliver Cromwell, lord protector; a dictatorship

Charles II (r. 1660-1685)

restored onto the english throne in 1660 after Cromwells rules

Clarendon Code (1661)

instituted by monarchists and Anglicans to drive out all Puritans out of both political and religious life

Test Act of 1673

excluded those unwilling to recieve the sacrament of the Church of Angland from voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling for meetings

Habeas Corpus Act (1679)

installed when the parliament sought to limit Chales power

James II (r. 1685-1688)

sought to return England to Catholicism; only reigned three years

Glorious Revolution (1688)

the final act on the struggle for political sovereighnty in England; James II was forced to abdicate the throne

William and Mary

declared joint sovereigns by parliament

Bill of Rights (1689)

England became a constitutional monarchy

John Locke (Second Treatise of Covol Government)

stated that the people create the government to pretect their "natural rights" of life, liberty, and property

Toleration Act of 1689

granted the right to worship for pretestant non-conformists (not for catholics, jews, or unitarians)

Act of Settlement (1701)

states that if King William or his sister in-law Anne died without children then the crown would pass to the granddaughter of James I, the Hanoverian electress dowager or to her protestant heirs; Stuarts no longer in line for succession

Act of Union (1707)

united Britan and Scotland into Great Britan

Robert Walpole

the first Prime Minister in British history

stadtholder

governor

Amsterdam

became the banking and commercial center of Europe

Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1611- 1632)

reorganized the Swedish government

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